Chemistry Chapter One

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Anonymous
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Chemistry Chapter One
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2012-07-08 16:33:20
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Chem 101
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Chem 101, chapter one vocab terms
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  1. Atoms
    • ›Submicroscopic
    • particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter.
  2. Molecules
    • ›Two
    • or more atoms joined in a specific geometrical arrangement. 
  3. Empirical
    • ›Based
    • on OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENT.
  4. hypothesis
    • ›Tentative
    • interpretation or explanation of the observations. 
  5. Experiments
    ›Highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations that can confirm or refute the hypothesis. 
  6. Scientific law
    • ›A brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones.
    • Not actually a law but rather describes how nature behaves – they are generalizations about what nature does.
    • Also known as Principles rather then laws
  7. Law of Conservation of mass
    ›In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. 
  8. Theory
    ›Scientific theory is a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does but why.

    ›Theories explains our laws
  9. Atomic theory
    ›Proposed by English chemist John Dalton (1766-1844)

    ›Explained law of conservation of mass by proposing that matter was composed of small, indestructible particles called atoms. 
  10. Law
    Summarizes a series of related observations
  11. Theory
    Theory gives the underlyign reasons for them
  12. Matter
    Anything that occupies space and has mass. Classify matter according to its state - solid liquid or gas according to its composition
  13. Atom composition in solid matter
    • ›Atoms are packed close to each other in fixed locations.
    • ›They vibrate against each other but do not move around or past each other
    • ›Fixed volume and rigid shape.
  14. Crystalline
    what  type of mass is a crystalline?
    Solid matter may be crystalline. Atoms or molecules are arranged in patterns with long-range, repeating order. The opposite of crystaalline is amorphous.
  15. Amorphous
    What kind of matter can be amorphous? 
    Atoms or molecules do not have long range order. Random order. Such as in Charcoal. The opposite of amorphous is crystalline. 
  16. Liquid matter
    Atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter, but they are free to move relative to each other, giving liquids a fized colume but not a fixed shape. 
  17. gaseous matter
    Lots of space between them and are free to move relative to one another, making gases "compressible". Gases always assume the shape AND colume of their container. HOWEVER Mass of gases always remains the same
  18. Classifications of Matter
    A. 1. 2. B. 1. 2. 
    A. Pure Substanes (not a varying composition) 1. Element (not separable) 2. Compound (separable) B. Mixture (carying composition) 1. Heterogeneous (not Uniform) 2. Homogeneous (uniform throughout)
  19. Pure Substance
    Composed of only a single type of atom or molecule
  20. Mixture
    Substance composed of two or more differnt types of atoms or molecules that can be combined in variable proportions. A new  sample may be differnt from the last. 
  21. Element
    Substane that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances. No single molecule based substance
  22. Compound
    A substance compsed of two or more elemts in fixed, definite proportions. Such as Water. One molecle or element with no other. 
  23. Heterogeneous mixture
    Composition caries from one region to another. One sample is different from another.
  24. Homogeneous
    Same composition throughout
  25. Decanting
    Separation of a mixture of a solid and a liquid by pouring carefully into another container (usually with a filter to stop the solid but still let the liquid go through) 
  26. Volatile
    Easily vaporizable
  27. Distillation
    Boiling off the more colatile part of the mixture to reduce the other part to its pure state. The colatile liquid is then recondensed in a condenser and collected in a separate flask
  28. Physical changes
    Change in appearance OR STATE (solid to liquid to gas) but NOT coposition are physical changes. 
  29. Chemical Changes
    Atoms rearrange, transforming the origianl substances into different substances. Rust occurs when oxygen combines with iron to form iron oxide - the orange substance we call rust. 
  30. Physical property
    • One that a substance displays without changing its composition 
    • Smell of gasoline
    • order taste color appearance melting point boiling point and density 
  31. Chemical Property
    • A substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change
    • flammability of gasoine
    • Corrosiveness flammability acidity toxicity, etc.  
  32. Energy
    Capacity to do work
  33. Work
    Defined as the action of a force through a distance
  34. Kinetic energy
    • Energy associated with its motion. 
    • The potential energy of a ball on top of a hill is transferred to kinetic energy when the ball is let go.
    • this moving energy is let go of with heat. So the potential energy will be greatest and the kinetic energy will eventually slow, the potential energy will also slow due to its position
    • Coverted to thermal energy
    • Essentially trasferred to the atoms and molecules that compose the ground, raising the temperature of the ground ever so slightly.  
  35. Potential energy
    • Eneryg associated with its position or composition
    • the ability to produce motion in motivation by gravity 
  36. Thermal Energy
    • Energy associated with the temperature of an object 
    • The heat given off by movement of its molecules/atoms. 
  37. Unstable Energy
    High Potential Energy
  38. Stable Energy 
    Once the potential energy is released, the energy (noow thermal) is stable (less likely to cause movement) 
  39. Metric Length Unit
    • Meter, m
    • 1 meter - slightly longer then a yard
    • 1 meter (39.37 in ) = 1 yard (36in) 
  40. Metric Mass
    • Kilogram kg
    • Measure of MASS (quantity of matter within it) not weight
    • One kg - 2.205 lb 
  41. Metric Time Unit
    Second s
  42. Temperature
    • Kelvin K
    • Celsius Water freezes at 0 and boils at 100
    • Kelvinsystem 0 is absolute coldest possible temp. (-273 C and -459 F)
  43. Amount of substance
    Mole mol
  44. Electric Current
    Ampere A
  45. Luminous intensity
    Candela cd
  46. Derived Unit
    • Combination of other units
    • m/s meters per second 
  47. Volume
    Measure of space - cubic meter m^3 cubic centimeter
  48. Density
    • Density of a substance is the ratio of its mass to its colume
    • D - mass/volume of D =m/v
    • Density of aluminum, for example, will always remainthe same no matter the quantity - unless work is involved. (heat etc) 
  49. Intensive property
    One that is independent of the amount of the substance
  50. Extensive property
    One the depends on the amount of the substance
  51. Accuracy
    Refers to how close the measured calue is to the actual value
  52. Precision
    Refers to how close a series of measuements are to one another of how reproducible they are. 
  53. Random Error
    Error that has equal probability of being too high or too low.
  54. Dimensional analysis
    Using units as guide to solving problems. 
  55. Conversion factor
    A fractional quantity with the units we are converting from on the bottom and the units we are converting to on the top.

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