Exam 3: Pharynx
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What is the pharynx?
a muscular tube, or common passageway connecting nasal cavities with larynx, and the oral cavity wth the esophagus
The pharynx can be subdivided into how many parts?
The pharynx is subdivided into 3 parts based on what?
its association with the nasal cavities, oral cavity, and larynx
Where is the Nasopharynx?
located posterior to nasal cavities
What features are contained in the nasopharynx?
- pharyngeal tonsils
- torus tubaris
- pharyngeal recess
What are choanae?
internal nares (openings) connect nasal cavities with nasopharynx
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils?
in roof of nasopharynx
What is another name for pharyngeal tonsils?
What does torus tubaris mean?
Where is the torus tubaris?
surrounds opening of auditory (Eustahian) tube
Where is the pharyngeal recess?
posterior to torus tubaris
Where is the Oropharynx?
below soft palate and behind dorsum of tongue
What features are within the oropharynx?
- palatoglossal fold
- mdian glossoepiglottic fold
- lateral glossoepiglottic folds
What is the palatoglossal fold?
forms boundary between oral cavity and oropharynx
Where is the palatine tonsil located?
between palatoglossal fold and palatopharyngeal fold
Where is the median glossoepiglottic fold?
passes from dorsum of tongue to epiglottis in midline
Where are the lateral glossoepiglottic folds?
pass from lateral surface of epiglottis to dorsum of tonue (bilateral)
What are valleculae?
spaces between median and lateral glossoepiglottic folds
Where are valleculae located?
between dorsum of tongue and epiglottis
Where is the Laryngopharynx?
located posterior to the larynx
What features are contained in the laryngopharynx?
- laryngeal aditus
- cricoid cartilage
- piriform recesses
What is teh laryngeal aditus?
opening into larynx from above
What covers the cricoid cartilage?
Where is the cricoid cartilage?
just above beginning of esophagus
What nerve supplies the piriform recesses?
branches of internal laryngeal nerve
What does the internal laryngeal nerve supply the piriform recesses with?
sensory innervation of laryngeal mucosa superior to vocal folds
How are the 3 pharyngeal constrictor muscles arranged?
like stacked flower pots
What are the 3 parts of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles?
- superior constrictor
- middle constrictor
- inferior constrictor
Where is the superior constrictor?
posterior to oral and nasal cavities
What is the middle constrictor associated with?
What is the inferior contrictor assciated with?
What are the two portions of the inferior constrictor?
- thyropharyngues muscle
- cricopharyngeus muscle
What is the thyropharyngues muscle attached to?
What is the cricopharyngeus muscle attached to?
Which muscle is the only pharyngeal muscle that relaxes during swallowing?
When the cricopharyngeus muscle relaxes during swallowing, what does this allow?
allows food and fluid to enter upper end of esophagus
All pharyngeal constictors insert into what?
median raphe posteriorly
All motor fibers to pharyngeal constrictors are innervated by which nerve?
Sensory fibers to mucosa are supplied by which nerves?
Which nerve supplies sensory fibers to mucosa of the nasopharynx and oropharynx?
CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
Which nerve supplies sensory fibers to mucosa of the laryngopharynx?
CN X (vagus)
The superior cervical ganglion contains what?
post-ganglionic sympathetic nerves to the head
The gag reflex test which nerve on the efferent branch?
The gag reflex tests which nerve on the afferent branch?
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