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What are the main components of blood?
- RBC, erythrocytes
- WBC, leukocytes
- Platelets, thrombocytes
What substances are dissolved in plasma?
Electrolytes, proteins, nutrients, wastes, coagulation factors
What 2 organs can produces blood cells when needed?
Liver & spleen
What are the myeloid cells?
RBCs, platelets, granulocytes, monocytes
What are the lymphoid cells?
What hormone controls the production of RBCs and what organ produces it? Why is it produced?
What hormone stimulates thrombopoiesis?
Leukopoiesis is the production of WBCs. What is the name of the cell that they originate from?
Pluripotent stem cell
Which vein is the most accessible and ideal for blood samples? What size needle should be used?
Femoral; largest possible
What size syringe should be used for blood samples?
Closest size to desired volume
List the steps on how to fill a test tube
- Remove tube top
- Fill w/ appropriate volume
- Mix tube if anticoagulant present
What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Plasma contains clotting factors and serum has used up its clotting factors. Serum no longer has fibrinogen.
When is Heparin used as an anticoagulant? When should it never be used?
When plasma is needed. For blood film analysis.
What does EDTA stand for? What is it used for?
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid is used for hematologic studies (CBC, BUN, blood typing)
What does the CBC include?
- Total RBC count
- Plasma protein concentration
- Total WBC count
- Blood film eval (WBC differential, erythrocyte & leukocyte morphology, platelet estimate)
- Hemoglobin concentration
- Erythrocyte indices
What is the unopette and how is it used?
Pipette holding predetermined amount of blood. Mix proper amounts of blood and diluent/lysing agent. Incubate mixture 10 min & invert to mix cells. Add to dropper assembly and add small amount to hemocytometer, making sure not to overflow moat around grid. Apply cover slip & observe on 40x mag.
How many squares make up the whole unopette grid? The corners? The middle?
9; 16; 400
What total mag is the WBC count done at? How do you get the total count of WBC?
View 9 primary cells w/ 10x objective, then add cells counted on both sides and divide by 2
When performing the RBC count, what feilds do you examine?
Center & four corner squares w/in the super square
What does the PCV measure?
% of whole blood composed of erythrocytes
What is the buffy coat composed of?
WBC & platelets
How is the HGB calculated?
Divide HCT by 3
What are the HCT and HGB normals for the canine and feline?
- Canine: 37 - 55%; 12 - 18g/dl
- Feline: 30 - 45%; 8 - 15 g/dl
What is methemoglobin/methemoblobinemia?
Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin containing oxidized iron & is inefficient at oxygen transport. Methemoglobinemia is an abnormal condition where an excess of methemoglobin is produced.
What causes methemoglobinemia?
Tylenol toxicity, hepatotoxicity, renal failure
What color is blood in animals with methemoglobinemia?
Chocolate brown; caused by methemoglobin spilling into the urine (methemoglobinuria)
What is MCV and what does it measure?
- Mean corpuscular volume
- Avg size of erythrocytes
What is MCH and what does it measure?
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
- Measurement of weight of hemoglobin in RBC and hemoglobins carrying capacity.
What are the 4 conditions possible for hemoglobin carrying capacity?
Normocytic, polychromasia, hypochromia, hyperchromia
What is MCHC and what does it measure?
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
- Avg hemoglobin concentration in RBCs of a sample
What does the reticulocyte count express and assess?
- % of RBCs that are immature
- Assesses bone marrow response to anemia and blood loss
What are the two types of reticulocytes?
Punctate and aggregate
What supplies are needed in a reticulocyte count?
Test tube, NMB stain, fixed vol. pipettor, slides
What is the procedure for the reticulocyte count?
- Mix equal parts of NMB stain & blood
- Let stand for 15 - 20 min
- Prep smear
- Examine @ 100x & count retic # & norm RBCs observed per 10 random high pwr feilds
What is the observed reticulocyte calculation?
# retics/ 1000 x 100 = % retics
What is the normal % for reticulocytes?
Mildly regenerative anemia has what % of retics? Moderately regenerative? Marked?
1 - 8%; 9 - 15%; >15%
What is the calc for corrected retic count?
% retics x observed HCT/norm HCT
What are causes of hypovolemia?
Dehydration, blood loss
What is anemia and what causes it?
- Deficiency of erythrocytes
- Decreased production: renal failure, bone marrow toxin, FeLV
- Increased destruction: IMHA, parasites (anaplasma, hemobartonella), toxins (heinz bodies), loss
What are the classifications of anemia and what do they mean?
- Regenerative: blood loss, hemolytic (IMHA, parasites)
- Non-regenerative: maturation defect, hypoproliferative
- Normocytic: chronic disorders
- Macrocytic: regenerative anemias
- Microcytic: iron deficiency anemia
- Hypochromic: reduced hemoglobin concentration
- Normochromic: norm hemoglobin concentration
What are the clinical signs of hemorrhaging?
- Increased CRT
- Pale MM
- Weak, thready pulse
- Cold extremities
- +/- external bleeding
What happens in IMHA? How is it treated?
- Antigen-antibody complexes form on rbc body resulting in killing of rbc by immune system
- Tx: steroids, chemo drugs
What are 2 infectious hemolytic anemias?
Hemobartonellosis & babesiosis
Heinz body hemolytic anemia is a reduction of rbcs through intravascular hemolysis due to what?
Aspirin (cat) and onion ingestion (dog)
What are some causes of maturation defects?
Bone marrow toxicity, FeLV, iron deficiency
What are some causes of hypoproliferative anemia?
- Decreased EPO
- Marrow toxicity (chloramphenicol)
- Infectious types: parvo, FeLV, FIV, Ehrlichia
- Non-infectious: estrogen toxicity, chemo
Hypervolemia is caused by what?
What is polycythemia?
Increased # of rbc's
What are the 3 types of polycythemia?
Relative (dehydration due to fluid loss), compensatory (high elevation), polycythemia rubra vera (rare bone marrow)