Chapter 22

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Chapter 22
2010-05-03 16:05:39
Chemistry Chang

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  1. Properties of the Transition metals: Trends
    • typically have incompletely filled d subshells or readily give rise to ions with incompletely filled subshells (Zn, Cd, Hg are not considered T.M.'s)
    • great tendency to from complex ions
    • distinctive color
    • paramagnetic compounds
    • catalytic activity
    • trend of size change is minimal - electrons go to inner shell instead out outer
  2. General Physical Properties of Transition Metals
    • Small size and "closest packing" crystal structure give rise to strong metallic bonds
    • high densities
    • high melting/boiling points
    • high ^ fus/vap
    • highest oxidation states occur with very electronegative atoms like F or O
  3. Coordination compound
    • a neutral species containing one or more complex ion
    • -complex ion - contains a central metal cation bonded to one or more anions or molecules with lone pairs
    • [Co(NH3)6]Cl3
  4. ligands
    • the small molecules or ions attached to the central metal
    • has one or more electron pair that can be donated to the metal (they are Lewis bases)
  5. donor atom
    the atom in a ligand bound directly to the metal atom
  6. coordination number (C.N.)
    the number of donor atoms around a central atom
  7. monodentate
    • ligand with one donor atom
    • :C---O:
  8. bidentate
    ligand with two donor atoms
  9. polydentate
    ligand with more than two donor atoms
  10. chelating agents
    bidentate and polydentate ligands (Greek chele means "claw")
  11. Bromide ligand
    • Br-
    • Bromo
  12. Chloride ligand
    • Cl-
    • Chloro
  13. common bidentate and polydentate ligands
    • ethylenediamine (en) - neutral
    • oxalate ion, 2-
    • ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 4-
  14. Naming Coordination Compounds
    • 1. Cation is named before the anion, regardless of which contains complex ion
    • 2. Within a complex ion the ligands are named 1st in alphabetical order then the metal
    • 3. Ligands: anionic end in -o, neutral usu name of molecule,
    • 4. When several ligans: di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa
    • 5. If the ligand itself already has the prefix in it's name: bis, tris, tetrakis
    • 6. Give the oxidation # of the metal as a Roman Numeral
    • 7.If complex is is an anion, its name ends in -ate
  15. Cyanide ligand
    • CN-
    • Cyano
  16. Hydroxide ligand
    • OH-
    • Hydroxo
  17. Oxide ligand
    • O-2
    • Oxo
  18. Carbonate ligand
    • Co3 -2
    • carbonato
  19. Nitrite ligand
    • NO2 -
    • nitro
  20. ammonia ligand
    • NH3
    • ammine
  21. carbon monoxide ligand
    • CO
    • Carbonyl
  22. water ligand
    • H2O
    • aqua
  23. Metal w/ligand
  24. Copper w/ligand
  25. gold w/ligand
  26. iron w/ligand
  27. lead w/ligand
  28. silver w/ligand
  29. tin w/ligand
  30. tungsten w/ligand
  31. Stereoisomers
    compounds that are made up of the same types and numbers of atoms bonded together in the same sequence but with different spatial arrangements
  32. Geometric isomers
    • stereoisomers that cannot be converted without breaking chemical bonds
    • cis - two groups are adjacent to each other
    • trans - two groups are on opposite sides of the structure
  33. optical isomers
    • nonsuperimposable mirror images
    • "chiral" (hand) mirror immage that isn't the same
    • they are OPTICALLY ACTIVE 0 they can rotate plane-plarized light
    • if compound rotates it right it is "dextrorotatory" (d)
    • if it rotates light left it is "levorotatory" (l)
  34. enantiomers
    the d and l isomers of a chiral molecule
  35. racemic mixture
    50/50 mixture of the two enantiomers
  36. Crystal Field Theory
    the bonding theory used to account for the color and magnetic properties of T.M. complexes
  37. crystal field splitting
    • ^ the energy difference between two sets of d orbitals in a metal atom when ligands are present
    • the size of ^ is affected by the metal and the ligand
    • ^ = hc/(lambda)
  38. color
    • an object appears black if it absorbs all colors of white light
    • an object appears white if it does not absorb any colors of white light
    • an object appears green if it absorbs all colors except green light (reflecting it back to your eye) or...
    • an object appears green if it absorbs only the "complimentary" color
  39. spectrochemical series
    • is a list of ligands in order of increasing ability to split the d orbital energies
    • the stronger field ligands will have a larger splitting ^ and higher energy light is being absorbed