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Upper GI Series
- Radiographs of the lower esophagus, stomach and duodenum using barium sulfate.
- Detects abnormalities, tumors or ulcerative lesions.
Upper GI Series Interventions
- Avoid smoking
- Expect light colored stool 72 hrs post
- Hardened barium impaction
- Encourage Fluids
- Milk of magnesia unless contraindicated
Water soluble product used in place of barium for patients susceptible to bleeding from the GI system.
Tube Gastric Analysis
Aspiration of stomach contents to determine the amount of acid produces by the parietal cells.
Tube Gastric Analysis Interventions
- NO Anticholinergic meds 24 hrs before
- No smoking (nicotine stimulates gastric secretions)
- Insert NG tube, aspirate, label and send specimen immediately.
- Direct visualization of the upper GI using a fiberoptic scope.
- Detects tumors, varices, inflammation, hiatal hernia, polyps ulcers, H. pylori, strictures and obstructions.
- Removal of polyps, coagulation of GI bleeding, sclerotherapy, dilation, biopsy.
- Preop checklist
- Vital signs
- Asses for allergies
- Remove dentures
- Sedative is given and Pharynx is anesthetized
- NPO until gag reflex returns
- Assess for symptoms perforation (pain, tenderness, guarding, bleeding,)
- Camera in a capsule is swallowed to visualize the GI tract
- Used to visualize, diagnose disease, and identify sources of GI bleeding
- Takes 57000 images during 8 hrs, relays images to a data recorder worn on a belt.
Capsule Endoscopy Interventions
- NPO until 4-6 hours later
- 8 hours after swallowing patient has the device removed
- Peristalsis causes passage of camera.
Esophageal Function Studies
- Bernstein Test , an Acid-perfusion test
- Helps differentiate esophageal pain from esophageal reflux from angina pectoris
Esophageal Function Studies Interventions
- Avoid sedating
- NPO 8 hrs before
- Withhold meds that will interfere with acid production (antacids and analgesics)
Occult Blood Examination
- Blood that is obscured or hidden from view
- Tests are also called Guaiac, Hemoccult and Hematest.
- Detects blood from GI tumors, ulcerations of the upper or lower GI, blood swallowed from oral or nasopharyngeal origin.
Occult Blood Interventions
- Keep Specimen free of urine or toilet paper.
- Don gloves and use tongue blade.
- No organ meat 24-48 hrs before test.
- Label (pt name, nurse initials, time & date of collection)
- Send to lab immediately
Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)
- Radiographs of the colon demonstrate presence of polyps, tumors, diverticula, and positional abnormalities.
- Barium sulfate is used
Lower GI Series Barium Enema Interventions
- Administer cathartics
- Administer cleansing enema PM before or AM of BE
- Milk of magnesia after
- Assess evacuation of Barium
- Barium my cause hardened impaction
- Light colored stool
- Increases with
- Liver disease, biliary obstruction, Hemolytic anemia,
- 0.3- 1.0
- increase with
- Liver Damage Hepatitis, Cirrhosis
- AST 0-40
- ALT 8-20
- Magnet to water
- protein produced by liver & from the diet
- Decreases with liver damage
- 3.5- 5.0
- Converts to urea
- Increases with Liver damage
- Increases with Pancreatitis
- Amylase 56-90
- Lipase 0-110