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Define performance management and describe the importance of performance management
Performance management is a goal-oriented process that is directed toward ensuring that organizational processes are in place to maximize productivity of employees, teams, and ultimately, the organization. Whereas performance appraisal is a one time event each year, performance management is a dynamic ongoing, continuous process
Define performance appraisal and identify the uses of performance appraisal.
Performance appraisal is a system to review and evaluation of an individual or teams job performance. Performance appraisal data are potentially valuable for use in numerous human resouce functional areas, including human resource planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, career planning and development, compensation programs, internal employee relations, and assessment of employee potential.
Discuss the performance appraisal environmental factors.
Legislation requires that appraisal systems be nondiscriminatory. Unions have traditionally stressed seniority as the basis of promotions and pay increases. A firm's corporate culture can assist or hinder the process.
Describe the performance appraisal process.
The identification of specific goals is the starting point for the PA process and the beginning of a continouous cycle. The job expectations are established with the help of job analysis. The next step involves examining the actural work performed. Performance is then appraised. The final step involves discussing the appraisal with the employee.
Identify the various performance criteria (standards) that can be established
The most common appraisal criteria include traits, behaviors, task outcomes, goal achievement and improvement potential.
Identify who may be responsible for performance appraisal and the performance period
People who are usually responsible for performance appraisal include immediate supervisors, subordinates, peers, groups, the employee, customers: and for the 360 degree feedback eval method perhaps all the above.
Id the various performance appraisal methods.
Performance appraisal methods include 360-degree feedback evaluation, rating scales, critical incidents, essay, work standards, ranking, forced ranking, forced distribution, behaviorally anchored rating scales, and results-oriented approaches.
List the problems that have been associated with performance appraisal.
The problems associated with performance appraisals include appraiser discomfor, lack of objectivity, halo/horn error, leniency/strictness, central tendency error, recent behavior bias, personal bias (sterotyping) manipulating the evaluatiion, and employee anxiety.
Explain the characteristics of an effective appraisal system.
Characteristics include job related criteria, performance expectations, standardization, trained appraisers, continuous open communication, performance reviews, and due process
Describe the legal implications of performance appraisal
It is unlikely that any appraisal system will be totally immune to legal challenge. However, systems that prossess certain characteristics are more legally defensible.
Explain how the appraisal interview should be conducted
A successful appraisal interview should be structured in a way that allows both the supervisor and the subordinate to view it as a problem solving rather than a falt finding session
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