A& P NS
Card Set Information
A& P NS
What is the basic functional unit of the NS?
Neurons cannot ___________ but they can __________ cell processes if the cell body is intact
What cells provide structural & functional suport & protection to the neurons?
Glial cells (neuroglia)
What are 2 names for the central cell body of a neuron?
Soma or perikaryon
What are the cell processes called?
Dendrites and axons
Dendrites __________ stimuli, while axons conduct nerve impulses __________
Dendrites serve as sensory receptors for what?
Heat, cold, touch, pressure, stretch, etc
White matter is tissue containing _________ axons
What are cell membranes of glial cells called?
Glial cells in the brain and spinal cord are called what?
What are glial cells of the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord called?
What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
Gaps b/w adjacent glial cells
What components make up the CNS? The PNS?
Brain and spinal cord
Cranial nerves, spinal nerves
____________ nerves conduct impulses toward the CNS, while ____________ nerves conduct impulses away from the CNS
Efferent nerves are also called ________ nerves b/c they cause skeletal contraction and movement
Afferent nerves are also called ___________ nerves
What NS is responsible for conscious, voluntary control?
Which NS is responsible for automatic functions?
What is the term for the difference in electrical charge across the neuronal membrane?
Resting membrane potential
In the sodium-potassium pump, Na is pumped from the ________ of the neuron to the ________ and K is pumped from the __________ to the _________
Inside to outside; outside to inside
Depolarization results from what?
An external stimulus opens the Na channel to allow Na to flow into the cell, causing a net (+) charge
Repolarization results from what?
Na channels close and K channels open to allow K to diffuse out of the cell to achieve resting state. Na and K is then moved back to original sides to gain net (-) resting membrane potential.
What is the threshold stimulus?
Stimulus w/ enough potential to cause complete depolarization
The refractory period is what?
The time when a neuron cannot be stimulated due to current depolarization or early repolarization
Large stimuli may be capable of causing depolarization during what refractory period?
The process of rapid conduction of action potential due to depolarization in the nodes of Ranvier is called what?
The transmission of nerve impulses due to neurotransmitters being released into the synaptic cleft is called?
What are the two types of neurotransmitters?
Excitatory and inhibitory
Which neurotransmitter can be either excitatory or inhibitory?
What are the catecholamines associated w/ "fight or flight"?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Which catecholamine is associated w/ autonomic fxn and muscle control?
What are 2 inhibitory neurotransmitters?
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine
What is responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine?
What breaks down norepinephrine?
Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
What breaks down norepinephrine that has not been reabsorbed?
Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)
What are the 4 parts of the brain?
Cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
What is the cerebrum responsible for?
Higher order behaviors (learning, intelligence, awareness)
The cerebral cortex is made of _________ matter, while the cortex and corpus collasum is made of ________ matter
Folds of the cerebral hemispheres are called?
Gyri (gyrus singular.)
What divide the cerebral hemispheres into lobes?
What divides the cerebrum into L & R hemispheres?
The cerebellum is responsible for?
Coordinated movement, balance, posture and complex reflexes
The diencephalon is the passage between what?
Brain stem and cerebrum
What structures are associated w/ the diencephalon and what do they do?
: relay station for regulating sensory inputs to the cerebrum
: interface b/w NS and endocrine system
: master gland regulating hormone release and production
The brain stem is responsible for what?
Basic support functions
What is the brain stem made of?
Medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
What are the layers of meninges? (Outer most to inner most)
Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
What are the meninges made of?
CT, blood vessels, fluid, fat
What are fxns of meninges?
Provide cushioning and distribution of nutrients & O2 to CNS
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid found and what is its fxn?
B/w meningeal layers, in canals & ventricles of brain & central canal of spinal cord. Provides cushioning & plays role in regulation of autonomic fxns
What is a CSF tap?
Drawing blood from the cerebrospinal fluid
What does the blood-brain barrier separate the capillaries in the brain from?
What is the fxn of the BBB?
Prevention of drugs, proteins, ions and other molecules from readily passing from the blood to the brain
What must be carefully selected due to the blood brain barrier?
Injectable and inhalent anesthetics
Which cranial nerve is responsible for smell?
CN 1 (Olfactory)
Which cranial nerve is responsible for sensations from the head, teeth and chewing?
CN V (Trigeminal)
Which CN is responsible for vision?
CN 2 (optic)
Which CN is V11?
Which CN is X?
What is the central part of the spinal cord that is composed of gray matter called?
What is the outer portion of the spinal cord that is composed of white matter called?
What type of nerve fibers do the dorsal nerve roots contain?
What type of nerve fibers do the ventral nerve roots contain?
Where do the dorsal horn neurons forward sensory nerve impulses?
Brain and other parts of the spinal cord
Where do the ventral horn neurons forward motor nerve impulses?
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the SNS?
What are the neurons that release epinephrine called?
What are the adrenergic receptors in the SNS, and what do they control?
: vasoconstriction of skin, GIT & kidneys
: increase HR & force contraction
What is the reflex that starts on one side of the body and travels to the opposite side?
What is the reflex that has a stimulus and response on the same side of the body?
What disease requires immediate sx if no withdrawal reflex is present?
IVDD (Intervertebral disc disease)
Which reflex consists of just withdrawal due to an incomplete nerve impulse sent to the brain?
Which reflex expresses a response to pain, as well as withdrawal?
What are you testing for when looking at the palpebral reflex arc?
The depth of anesthesia. Lightly anesthetized animals will blink when when the medial canthus is tapped, while deeply anesthetized animals will not.
What happens when looking at the PLR?
Shining a light in one eye will cause constriction of that eye (direct), as well as the other eye (consensual) in normal conditions