A& P NS

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anniles
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161748
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A& P NS
Updated:
2012-07-09 22:20:19
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Nervous system
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NS
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  1. What is the basic functional unit of the NS?
    Neuron
  2. Neurons cannot ___________ but they can __________ cell processes if the cell body is intact
    Reproduce; regenerate
  3. What cells provide structural & functional suport & protection to the neurons? 
    Glial cells (neuroglia)
  4. What are 2 names for the central cell body of a neuron?
    Soma or perikaryon
  5. What are the cell processes called? 
    Dendrites and axons
  6. Dendrites __________ stimuli, while axons conduct nerve impulses __________
    Receive; away
  7. Dendrites serve as sensory receptors for what?
    Heat, cold, touch, pressure, stretch, etc
  8. White matter is tissue containing _________ axons
    Myelinated
  9. What are cell membranes of glial cells called?
    Myelin sheaths
  10. Glial cells in the brain and spinal cord are called what?  
    Oligodendrocytes
  11. What are glial cells of the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord called?
    Schwann cells
  12. What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
    Gaps b/w adjacent glial cells
  13. What components make up the CNS?  The PNS?
    • Brain and spinal cord
    • Cranial nerves, spinal nerves 
  14. ____________ nerves conduct impulses toward the CNS, while ____________ nerves conduct impulses away from the CNS
    Afferent; efferent
  15. Efferent nerves are also called ________ nerves b/c they cause skeletal contraction and movement
    Motor
  16. Afferent nerves are also called ___________ nerves
    Sensory
  17. What NS is responsible for conscious, voluntary control?
    Somatic
  18. Which NS is responsible for automatic functions? 
    Autonomic
  19. What is the term for the difference in electrical charge across the neuronal membrane?
    Resting membrane potential
  20. In the sodium-potassium pump, Na is pumped from the ________ of the neuron to the ________ and K is pumped from the __________ to the _________
    Inside to outside; outside to inside
  21. Depolarization results from what?
    An external stimulus opens the Na channel to allow Na to flow into the cell, causing a net (+) charge
  22. Repolarization results from what?
    Na channels close and K channels open to allow K to diffuse out of the cell to achieve resting state.  Na and K is then moved back to original sides to gain net (-) resting membrane potential.
  23. What is the threshold stimulus?
    Stimulus w/ enough potential to cause complete depolarization
  24. The refractory period is what?
    The time when a neuron cannot be stimulated due to current depolarization or early repolarization
  25. Large stimuli may be capable of causing depolarization during what refractory period?
    Relative
  26. The process of rapid conduction of action potential due to depolarization in the nodes of Ranvier is called what?
    Saltatory conduction
  27. The transmission of  nerve impulses due to neurotransmitters being released into the synaptic cleft is called?
    Synaptic transmission
  28. What are the two types of neurotransmitters?
    Excitatory and inhibitory
  29. Which neurotransmitter can be either excitatory or inhibitory?
    Acetylcholine
  30. What are the catecholamines associated w/ "fight or flight"?
    Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  31. Which catecholamine is associated w/ autonomic fxn and muscle control?
    Dopamine
  32. What are 2 inhibitory neurotransmitters?
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine
  33. What is responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine?
    Acetylcholinesterase
  34. What breaks down norepinephrine? 
    Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
  35. What breaks down norepinephrine that has not been reabsorbed?
    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)
  36. What are the 4 parts of the brain?
    Cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem
  37. What is the cerebrum responsible for?
    Higher order behaviors (learning, intelligence, awareness)
  38. The cerebral cortex is made of _________ matter, while the cortex and corpus collasum is made of ________ matter
    Gray; white
  39. Folds of the cerebral hemispheres are called?
    Gyri (gyrus singular.)
  40. What divide the cerebral hemispheres into lobes?
    Sulci (sulcus)
  41. What divides the cerebrum into L & R hemispheres?
    Longitudinal fissure
  42. The cerebellum is responsible for?
    Coordinated movement, balance, posture and complex reflexes
  43. The diencephalon is the passage between what?
    Brain stem and cerebrum
  44. What structures are associated w/ the diencephalon and what do they do?
    • Thalmus: relay station for regulating sensory inputs to the cerebrum
    • Hypothalamus: interface b/w NS and endocrine system
    • Pituitary: master gland regulating hormone release and production
  45. The brain stem is responsible for what?
    Basic support functions
  46. What is the brain stem made of?
    Medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
  47. What are the layers of meninges? (Outer most to inner most)
    Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
  48. What are the meninges made of?
    CT, blood vessels, fluid, fat
  49. What are fxns of meninges?
    Provide cushioning and distribution of nutrients & O2 to CNS
  50. Where is the cerebrospinal fluid found and what is its fxn?
    B/w meningeal layers, in canals & ventricles of brain & central canal of spinal cord.  Provides cushioning & plays role in regulation of autonomic fxns
  51. What is a CSF tap?
    Drawing blood from the cerebrospinal fluid
  52. What does the blood-brain barrier separate the capillaries in the brain from?
    Nervous tissue
  53. What is the fxn of the BBB? 
    Prevention of drugs, proteins, ions and other molecules from readily passing from the blood to the brain
  54. What must be carefully selected due to the blood brain barrier?
    Injectable and inhalent anesthetics
  55. Which cranial nerve is responsible for smell?
    CN 1 (Olfactory)
  56. Which cranial nerve is responsible for sensations from the head, teeth and chewing?
    CN V (Trigeminal)
  57. Which CN is responsible for vision?
    CN 2 (optic)
  58. Which CN is V11?
    Facial
  59. Which CN is X?
    Vagus (wanderer)
  60. What is the central part of the spinal cord that is composed of gray matter called?
    Medulla
  61. What is the outer portion of the spinal cord that is composed of white matter called?
    Cortex
  62. What type of nerve fibers do the dorsal nerve roots contain?
    Sensory fibers
  63. What type of nerve fibers do the ventral nerve roots contain?
    Motor fibers
  64. Where do the dorsal horn neurons forward sensory nerve impulses?
    Brain and other parts of the spinal cord
  65. Where do the ventral horn neurons forward motor nerve impulses?
    Spinal nerves
  66. What is the primary neurotransmitter of the SNS?
    Norepinephrine
  67. What are the neurons that release epinephrine called?
    Adrenergic neurons
  68. What are the adrenergic receptors in the SNS, and what do they control?
    • Alpha 1: vasoconstriction of skin, GIT & kidneys
    • Beta 1: increase HR & force contraction 
    • Beta 2: bronchodilation 
  69. What is the reflex that starts on one side of the body and travels to the opposite side?
    Contralateral reflex
  70. What is the reflex that has a stimulus and response on the same side of the body?
    Ipsilateral reflex
  71. What disease requires immediate sx if no withdrawal reflex is present?
    IVDD (Intervertebral disc disease)
  72. Which reflex consists of just withdrawal due to an incomplete nerve impulse sent to the brain?
    Reflex arc
  73. Which reflex expresses a response to pain, as well as withdrawal?
    Withdrawal reflex
  74. What are you testing for when looking at the palpebral reflex arc?
    The depth of anesthesia.  Lightly anesthetized animals will blink when when the medial canthus is tapped, while deeply anesthetized animals will not.
  75. What happens when looking at the PLR?
    Shining a light in one eye will cause constriction of that eye (direct), as well as the other eye (consensual) in normal conditions

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