Developmental Psych

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Anonymous
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16175
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Developmental Psych
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2010-04-26 00:34:03
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psychology development
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Developmental Psychology
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  1. TWO TYPES OF MENTAL STATES
    • 1. DISPOSITIONAL
    • Orientation towards reality (eg. desires, goals)

    • 2. EPISTEMIC
    • Representation of reality (eg. beliefs, knowledge)
  2. WEAKNESSES IN CHILDREN'S MENTAL STATE REASONING
    • 1. PROCESSING DIFFICULTIES
    • ex. language skills, attention span

    • 2. SYSTEMATIC REASONING ERRORS
    • ex. cannot evaluate partial info, lack interpretive t.of.m., etc.
  3. 4 IMPLICIT SOCIAL PREFERENCES
    1. GROUP CHARACTERISTICS

    2. INGROUP BIAS

    3. HIGH-STATUS GROUPS

    4. SELF-PRESENTATION
  4. THEORIES OF INTERGROUP COGNITION
    • 1. GRADUAL
    • Implicit social group preferences are learned gradually, emerge slowly
    • Possible 'critical windows' of development

    • 2. EARLY & AUTOMATIC
    • Group preferences emerge early, remain stable over time
  5. FUNCTIONS OF OWN-GROUP POSITIVITY BIAS
    • 1. PLACEHOLDER FOR OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE
    • Default reaction in the absence of objective knowledge
    • Group membership will not matter

    • 2. ORGANIZES SOCIAL EXPERIENCE
    • A schema/filter for experiences
    • Group membership affects evaluation of groups

    * Own-group positivity bias protects against negative perception of ingroup, but is not enough to maintain positive perception
  6. 3 MAIN THEMES IN PSYCHOLOGY
    1. DOMAIN GENERAL vs. SPECIFIC

    2. NATURE vs. NURTURE

    3. EXPLICIT vs. IMPLICIT
  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL ESSENTIALISM
    Organizing the world into natural and artificial categories; differential evaluation of categories

    1. Intuitive belief that certain categories are natural (real, discovered, rooted in nature)

    2. Unobservable properties (essences) cause things/people to be the way they are

    3. Everyday words reflect this structure of the world
  8. 2 THEORIES OF ESSENTIALISM IN SOCIAL CATEGORIZATION
    • 1. DOMAIN-GENERAL
    • Reasoning about social categories is the same as reasoning about other categories
    • Pick out relevant social categories, make inferences based on the category
    • Perceptual cues are necessary and sufficient for social categorization

    • 2. DOMAIN-SPECIFIC
    • Conceptual differention among different social categories
    • The type of category determines which group properties are important and what inferences are made
    • Shared intrinsic properties are more important than perceptual cues
  9. 2 THEORIES OF SOCIAL CATEGORIZATION IN CHILDREN
    • 1. SPECIES-ANALOGY
    • View people as being like different animal species
    • Pay attention to intrinsic cues (body, facial features, skin color, eye color)

    • 2. NOUN-LABELLING
    • Noun labelling facilitates essentialization

    • * Noun labelling is sufficient for social categorization
    • * Perceptual cues are not necessary nor sufficient
  10. 5 FEATURES OF LANGUAGE
    1. GENERATIVITY

    2. HUMAN-SPECIFIC

    3. SPECIES-UNIVERSAL

    4. CONVEYED BY SPEECH

    5. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION PRECEDES LANGUAGE PRODUCTION
  11. STAGES OF LANGUAGE PRODUCTION
    • 1. COOING (6-8 weeks)
    • Simple speech sounds, improved vocalization

    • 2. BABBLING (6-10 months)
    • Repetitive vowel-consonant syllables
    • Gradually resembles their native language

    • 3. HOLOPHRASTIC (10-15 months)
    • One-word utterances that express a whole phrase
    • Overextensions

    • 4. TELEGRAPHIC (12-24 months)
    • Simple sentences; contain only essential elements
    • Internalized grammar rules (correct word order, overregulation errors)
  12. 4 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
    • 1. BEHAVIORIST
    • Operant conditioning (reinforcement from parents)
    • Input: Yes
    • Domain-specific: No
    • Criticism: No empirical support

    • 2. NATIVIST
    • Universal grammar
    • Modularity Hypothesis
    • Input: No
    • Domain-specific: Yes
    • Criticism: Ignores communicative functions of language

    • 3. CONNECTIONIST
    • Interconnected info-processing units
    • General-purpose learning mechanism
    • Input: Yes
    • Domain-specific: No
    • Criticism: No successful models for language development

    • 4. INTERACTIONIST
    • Language development driven by desire to communicate
    • Emphasis on social context
    • Input: Yes
    • Domain-specific: Some
    • Criticism: Ignores syntactic development
  13. 2 PROBLEMS IN CHILD'S WORD LEARNING
    • 1. WORD SEGMENTATION
    • Where do words begin and end?
    • Solutions: prosody, stress patterns, statistical learning

    • 2. QUINEAN REFERENCE PROBLEM
    • What do words mean?
    • Solutions: whole-object bias, taxonomic bias, basic-level bias, shape bias, function bias, pragmatic cues, linguistic context, syntactic bootstrapping, mutual exclusivity bias, fast mapping
  14. TRIAD OF IMPAIRMENTS IN AUTISM
    • 1. LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION
    • Mute, echolalia, pronoun reversal, pragmatic deficits, misusing words

    • 2. BEHAVIOUR
    • Sameness/routine, special interests, no pretend play, stereotyped movements

    • 3. SOCIAL INTERACTION
    • Poor attachment, socially unaware, social isolation
  15. 4 THEORIES OF AUTISM
    • 1. EMOTIONAL IMPAIRMENT
    • Struggle with complex emotions and epistemic beliefs

    • 2. CENTRAL COHERENCE
    • Focus on small details, not big picture

    • 3. EXTREME MALE BRAIN
    • Advanced systematizing skills, severely impaired empathizing skills

    • 4. THEORY OF MIND MODULE
    • "Triad of Impairments"
  16. 4 COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONS
    1. SUBJECTIVE FEELINGS

    2. PHYSIO. CHANGES

    3. DESIRE TO TAKE ACTION

    4. COGNITIONS
  17. 5 THEORIES OF EMOTION
    • 1. COMMON SENSE
    • Stimuli - Emotion - Physio Changes

    • 2. JAMES-LANGE
    • Stimuli - Physio Changes - Emotion

    • 3. INTERPRETIVE
    • Stimuli - Physio Changes - Interpretation - Emotion

    • 4. DISCRETE EMOTIONS
    • Each emotion has corresponding set of physio and facial reactions
    • Innate, develop early

    • 5. FUNCTIONALIST
    • Emphasize the functions that emotions serve
  18. 2 TYPES OF SELF-CONSCIOUS EMOTIONS
    • 1. SELF-REFERENTIAL
    • ex. embarrassment

    • 2. SELF-EVALUATIVE
    • ex. shame, guilt
  19. 8 COMPONENTS OF E.Q.
    1. IDENTIFY/EXPRESS OWN EMOTIONS

    2. IDENTIFY OTHERS' EMOTIONS

    3. PERSISTENCE

    4. EMPATHY

    5. DELATED GRATIFICATION

    6. EMOTION REGULATION

    7. UNDERSTAND DISPLAY RULES

    8. SECURE ATTACHMENT
  20. CARE-GIVING HYPOTHESIS
    • 1. SECURE PARENTING
    • Sensitive, positive, affectionate, supportive, stimulating

    • 2. AVOIDANT PARENTING
    • Rejecting, angry, less expressive, averse to touch

    • 3. AMBIVALENT PARENTING
    • Anxious, children tend to be difficult in temperament
  21. TEMPERAMENT
    • Constitutionally-based
    • Individual differences in emotion, motor reactivity, self-regulation
    • Consistent over time/ across situations

    • 1. EASY
    • 2. DIFFICULT
    • 3. SLOW TO WARM UP
  22. 3 ROLES OF PARENTS IN EMO. DEVELOPMENT
    1. EXPRESSION of emotion

    2. REACTION to child's expression of emotion

    3. DISCUSSION with child about emotion

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