Exam 3: Respiratory System

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brau2308
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161828
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Exam 3: Respiratory System
Updated:
2012-07-10 13:49:33
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anatomy respiratory lowerer tract
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review of 7/10 lecture on respiratory system (lower respiratory tract) for exam 3
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  1. The lower respiratory tract begins with what structure?
    trachea
  2. What is included in the lower respiratory tract?
    • trachea
    • main stem bronchi
    • bronchial tubes
    • lungs (alveoli)   
  3. What lines the trachea, bronchi and branchial tubes?
    ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium contained in a mucous membrane
  4. What is the functon of the cilia?
    move layer of mucous toward laryngopharynx where it can be swallowed or coughed up
  5. The trachea is continuous with what structure?
    larynx
  6. Where is the trachea?
    midline structure from C6 vertebra to sternal angle at the same level as T4
  7. What is the sternal angle?
    junction of manubrium with body of sternum
  8. Where does the trachea bifurcate?
    at sternal angle
  9. When the trachea bifurcates at the sternal angle, what does it branch to?
    R/L main bronchi
  10. What is the area of bifurcation of the trachea called?
    carina
  11. What is the diameter of the trachea?
    3/4"
  12. How long is the trachea in adults?
    3 1/2" to 5" long
  13. What is the shape of the trachea?
    cylinder with cross-sectionalprofile shaped like a horseshoe
  14. What makes up the trachea?
    • cartilage rings
    • smooth muscle
    • mucous glands  
  15. How many cartilage rings does the trachea have?
    20
  16. What is the shape of the cartilage rings of the trachea?
    "U-shaped"
  17. What are the cartilage rings of the trachea made of?
    hyaline cartilages
  18. What is the function of the hyaline cartilages of the cartilage rings of the the trachea?
    hold airway open
  19. Is the hyaline cartilage of the cartilage rings of the trachea elastic?
    no, it is fairly rigid
  20. Are there cartilage rings on the bronchial tubes?
    no, cartilage plates
  21. Where is the smooth muscle of the trachea found?
    in elastic posterior wall of trachea, next to esophagus
  22. What is the function of the smooth muscle of the trachea?
    • contract during coughing (decreasing opening in trachea) to help get air out of lungs
    • allows esophagus to enlarge with food/drink (elastic wall bulges forward) 
  23. What is the function of the mucous glands in the trachea?
    keep surface of epithelium coated with mucous
  24. Which arteries supply the trachea?
    superior and inferior thyroid aa
  25. Which veins drain the trachea?
    superior, middle, and inferior thyroid vv
  26. Which lung is bigger?
    right lung
  27. Which main bronchi has a large diameter?
    right main bronchus
  28. Why does the right main bronchus have a larger diameter?
    because the right lung is bigger
  29. Which main bronchi has a smaller diameter?
    left main bronchus
  30. Which main bronchi is more vertical?
    right main bronchus
  31. What main bronchi is less vertical?
    left main bronchus
  32. Which main bronchi is shorter in length?
    right main bronchus
  33. Which main bronchi is longer in length?
    left main bronchus
  34. What is the organization of the bronchi and alveoli?
    • primary (main stem) bronchi
    • secondary (lobar) bronchi
    • tertiary (segmental) bronchi
    • terminal bronchioles
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveoli
  35. Where do the secondary (lobar) bronchi go?
    to lobes of lungs
  36. How many lobes does the right lung have?
    3
  37. How many lobar bronchi does the right lung have?
    3
  38. How many lobes does the left lung have?
    2
  39. How many lobar bronchi does the left lung have?
    2
  40. What is another name for primary bronchi?
    main stem bronchi
  41. What is another name for secondary bronchi?
    lobar bronchi
  42. What is another name for tertiary bronchi?
    segmental bronchi
  43. Where do the tertiary bronchi go?
    to bronchopulmonary segments
  44. What are bronchopulmonary segments?
    • independently functional units
    • one physiological unit in the lung (has own air supply, blood supply, nerve supply, and lympatic drainage) 
  45. How many segments does the right lung have?
    10
  46. How many segmental bronchi does the right lung have?
    10
  47. How many segmental bronchi does the upper lobe of the right lung have?
    3
  48. How many segmental bronchi does the middle lobe of the right lung have?
    3
  49. How many segmental bronchi does the lower lobe of the right lung have?
    5
  50. How many segments does the left lung have?
    8
  51. How many segmental bronchi does the left lung have?
    8
  52. How many segmental bronchi does the upper lobe of the left lung have?
    4
  53. How many segmental bronchi does the lower lobe of the left lung have?
    4
  54. What are the terminal bronchioles?
    branches of segmental bronchi
  55. Do the terminal bronchioles have cartilage plates?
    no
  56. Do the terminal bronchioles have smooth muscle? If so, why?
    yes, to change the diameter of the bronchioles
  57. What part of the lower respirator tract is microscopic?
    • terminal bronchioles
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveoli  
  58. If object is inhaled, where would it most likely get caught?
    in right main bronchus
  59. What are contained in the respiratory bronchioles?
    alveoli and smooth muscle
  60. How thick are alveoli?
    single cell in thickness
  61. How are alveoli organized?
    in clusters
  62. What surrounds the alveoli?
    dense capillary network
  63. What are the two sources of blood supply to the lung?
    • pulmonary arteries
    • bronchial arteries 
  64. Of the three bronchial arteries, how many are left?
    2
  65. Of the three bronchial arteries, how many are right?
    1
  66. Where do th three bronchial arteries come from?
    descending aorta
  67. What do the 3 bronchial arteries supply?
    bronchial tubes, but not alveoli
  68. Are the bronchial arteries part of the pulmonary circulation?
    no
  69. Where do the bronchial arteries go into?
    into the lungs
  70. What do bronchial arteries carry?
    oxygenated blood to bronchial tubes
  71. Which veins drain the bronchi and alveoli?
    bronchial veins
  72. Where do bronchial veins drain to?
    azygous veins
  73. Azygous veins are tributaries to what?
    superior vena cava
  74. Are impressions on the lungs present in a living person?
    no, only in cadaver
  75. What special type of bronchi does the right lung have?
    EP bronchi
  76. What does the oblique fissue in the left lung divide?
    upper and lower lungs
  77. What does the oblique fissure in the right lung divide?
    • middle lobe from lower lobe
    • upper lobe from middle lobe 
  78. Which lung has a horizontal fissure?
    right lung
  79. What does the horizontal fissure of the right lung divide?
    upper lobe from middle lobe
  80. Where is the cardiac notch of the lung?
    upper lobe of left lung adjacent to the heart
  81. Where is the lingula of the lung?
    upper lobe of left lung; adjacent to cardiac notch
  82. What is the shape of the lingula of the lung?
    shaped like a tongue
  83. Where is the apex of the lungs?
    area of lungs above the first ribs
  84. What is the apex of the lungs also known as?
    cupola
  85. Where is the base of the lungs?
    areaof lungs adjacent torespiratory diaphragm
  86. What is the hilum of the lung?
    contains structures entering and exiting the lungs (bronchi, pulmonary vessels and nerves, lymphatic vessels, and bronhial vessels)
  87. What is visceral pleura?
    serous membrane covering external surface of lungs
  88. Where is the pulmonary trunk?
    emerges from right ventricle
  89. How many pulmonary arteries are there?
    2, right and left
  90. The pulmonary arteries have a branching pattern similar to which other structure?
    bronchi
  91. What do branches of the pulmonary arteries form?
    capillary network around alveoli that connects with pulmonary veins
  92. Does the capillary network cover the entire surface area of the alveoli?
    yes
  93. What is the alveolar capillary network?
    • functional part of pulmonary circulation
    • provides exchange of blood gases with air in alveoli
  94. What is the function of pulmonary veins?
    collect blood from alveoli and return it to left atrium
  95. Why are sensory (GVA) neurons needed in the lower respiratory tract?
    • because CNS needs certain information from the tract
    • like how much air fills the alveoli (stretch receptors) and to measure the irritation of the bronchial tubes (irritant receptors) 
  96. Where is sensory (GVA neurons) innervation of the lower respiratory tract contained?
    in vagus nerve
  97. Where are stretch receptors of the sensory innervation of the lower respiratory tract?
    contained in alveoli
  98. Where are irritant receptors of the sensory innervation of the lower respiratory tract?
    respiratory epithelium
  99. Where is motor (GVE neurons) innervation of the lower respiratory tract contained?
    autonomic fibers contained in pulmonary nerve plexus
  100. Where are the preganglionic sympathetic neurons?
    spinal cord levels T1-L2
  101. Where do the preganglionic sympathetic neurons synapse with the postganglionic?
    in the sympathetic chain ganglion
  102. Where do sympathetic (post-ganglionic) nerve fibers of the motor part of the lower respiratory tract go?
    to smooth muscle and glands
  103. What is the function of sympathetic (post-ganglionic) nerve fibers of the motor part of the the lower respiratory tract?
    • decrease glandular secretion
    • vasocontriction of bronchial vessels (decrease blood flow to mucous glands)
    • dilate bronchial tubes (increase air to alveoli)
    • inhibit contraction of smooth muscle in bronchioles 
  104. Where are the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons located?
    in the brain stem (CN X)
  105. Where does the preganglionic parasympathetic neuron synapse with the postganglionic?
    in wall of target organ (smooth mm/gland)
  106. Where do parasympathetic nerve fibers of the motor part of the lower respiratory tract go?
    • to smooth muscle in bronchioles
    • bronchial arteries
    • mucous glands
  107. What is the function of parasympathetic nere fibers of the the motor part of the lower respiratory tract?
    • increase glandular secretion (increase sefactant [keeps alveoli open so they don't collapse])
    • vasodilation of bronchial vessels (increase blood flow to mucous glands)
    • constrict bronchial tubes (decrease amount of air to alveoli)
  108. Pre-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the motor part of the lower respiratory tract are contributed to which plexus by the vagal nerves?
    pulmonary nerve plexus
  109. The pre-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the motor part of the lower respiratory tract synapse with post-ganglionic fibers where?
    on surfaces of bronchial tubes and bronchial vessels
  110. What ar the lymphatic plexuses of the lower resiratory tract?
    superficial and deep
  111. Where is the superficial lymphatic plexus?
    lies deep to visceral pleura
  112. Where does the superficial lymphatic plexus drain lymph from?
    visceral pleura and lung parenchyma
  113. What is lung parenchyma?
    alveoli (functional tissue)
  114. Where does the superficial lymphatic plexus drain lymph to?
    bronchopulmonary lymph nodes in the hilum
  115. Where are the deep lymphatic plexus of the lower respiratory tract?
    in substance of bronchi
  116. Where does the deep lymphatic plexus drain lymph from?
    bronchi
  117. Where does the deep lymphatic plexus drain lymph to?
    pulmonary lymph nodes near the hilum
  118. Where does lymph from the pulmonary lymph nodes (near the hilum) go?
    to brochopulmonary nodes in hilum
  119. List the lymph nodes in sequence of lymphatic drainage:
    • pulmonary nodes
    • bronchopulmonary (hilar) nodes
    • tracheobronchial nodes
    • tracheal nodes   
  120. Where are the pulmonary nodes?
    in lungs at bifurcations of larger bronchi
  121. What is another name for bronchopulmonary nodes?
    hilar nodes
  122. Where are bronchopulmonary nodes?
    in the hilum
  123. Where are tracheobronchial nodes?
    at bifurcation of trachea
  124. What is another name for tracheal nodes?
    paratracheal nodes
  125. Where are tracheal nodes?
    lateral surfaces of trachea
  126. Where do the bronchomediastinal lymph trunks drain lymph from?
    thoracic organs
  127. How many lymph trunks are in the lower respiratory tract?
    2, right and left bronchomediastinal lymph trunks
  128. Where does the right bronchomediastinal lymph trunk drain lymph from?
    right side of trachea
  129. Where does the right bronchomediastinal lymph trunk drain lymph to?
    right lymphatic duct
  130. Where does the left bronchomediastinal lymph trunk drain lymph from?
    left side of trachea
  131. Where does the left bronchomediastinal lymph trunk drain lymph to?
    thoracic duct
  132. What structures pass through the superior thoracic aperture?
    • cervical parietal pleura
    • trachea
  133. Describe the spread of bronchogenic cancer:
    • spreads to pulmonary nodes
    • then bronchopulmonary nodes
    • tracheobronchial nodes (secondary tumor forms here)
    • trachea shifts (carina shifts R/L)
    • spread to tracheal nodes    

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