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-approach to reading instruction based on activities and stories developed from personal experiences learner
-stories about personal experiences are written down by a teacher and read together until the learner associates written form of word with the spoken
Language Experience Approach
The conscious awareness that words are made up of individual speech sounds (phonemes)
- duck has three sounds (d/u/k/)
- duck and luck rhyme
- Can be taught w/out print
-knowledge of letter/sound correspondence
(in word "phonics", the 'ph' makes the /f/ sound)
- Must be taught with print.
-Rimes that have the same spelling
-Words that share the same _______ are word families.
Word Family: cat, bat, sat.
Two letters, one sound
(/ch/, /th/,/sh/, /oa/, /ea/)
Two letters, one glided sound
When two vowels come together in a word, the first vowel is usually long and the second one is silent
E.g. boat, feet, play
When a word has a final e, the medial vowel is usually long and the final e is silent.
- E.g. cake, Pete, kite, tote, cute
The VCe (Final e) Generalization
The letter “c” has two phonemes /k/ and /s/
/k/ before a, o, and u (e.g. cake, coke, cup)
/s/ before e, i, and y (e.g. cereal, excited, cycle)
The C Generalization
The letter “g” has two phonemes /g/ and /j/
/g/ before a, o, and u (e.g. gate, goat, gun)
/j/ before e, i, and y (e.g. gem, gin, gym)
The G Generalization
When a vowel comes between two consonants, it usually has the short vowel sound.
- E.g. cat, get, hit, hot, cup
The CVC Generalization
Accuracy, rate, and expression.
1. Repeated Readings
2. Assisted Reading - Childred read with classmate. The children read the same text aloud together, providing support for one another.
3. Choral reading - Improves fluency because the less able readers can hear fluent models and jump aboard.
4. Readers theatre- actors read scripts. Children get a chance to repeatedly practice reading aloud their parts. Allows students to increase their oral reading pace.
1. Literal - The answer can be found “right there” in the text (it is stated explicitly)
2. Inferential - The reader must understand beyond what is “right there” in the text (How? Why?)
3. Evaluative - The reader must distinguish fact from opinion, detect bias,
Different Levels of Comprehension
Student read aloud 95% or more words correctly and answers 90% or more of the comprehension questions. Child can read and understand books w/out assistance from the teacher.
Independent Reading Level
(90, 60) Students read aloud 90% or more of the words correctly and answers at least 60% of the comprehenstion questions correctly.
- Student can read and understand material at this level with help from teacher.
Instructional Reading Level
The child correctly read aloud less than 90% of the words or did not answer 60% of the comprehension questions correctly.
- child cannot read and understand books at this level, even with help.
Frustration Reading Level
1. Display large letter on blackboard, students whose name starts with that letter line up underneath it.
2. 26 shoeboxes, each labeled with a different letter, students place toys starting with the letter in the correct box.
3. Sing the Alphabet- Sing song slowly as point to letter
4. ABC Books. Read aloud books organized by teh letters of the alphabet
5. Practive writing upper and lower case letters.
6. Tactile and Kinesthetic Methods: tactile-children make letters from clay or trace their fingers over letters cut from sand paper. Kinesthetic- Pretend to write letters in air that are 2 feet in height.
Letter Recognition Strategies
Focus on prefixes, suffixes, and root words.
Also called structual analysis
1. Word Banks - A child's personal collection of words that he/she knows well enough to recognize in isolation
2. Word Walls
3. Explicity teaching of Sight words
How to teach sight words
Study of the origin and development of words
1. Self Monitoring- Evaluate and realize when doing understand
3. Summarizing- Identify main ideas and can retell story
4. Note-Taking and Outlining
5. Mapping- Storymaps, Story grammars, Story Frames
6. Learning Logs - Place where children record their thoughts about what they have read and generate questions, speculate, and summarize
Comprehension Strategy where story's title is placed in a circle in the center of the diagram and characters, events, and locations are placed in satellite positions around it. Lines show relationships.
Comprehension Strategy that is an outline.
A common template for a ______ would look like this:
Comprehension Strategy which is easy to complete. Students just fill in the blanks.
For example: (Title of Story)
In this story, the problem starts when ___________. After that___________. Next, _________. Then, ____________. The problem is finally solved when
A reading comprehension instruction strategy.
-refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text.
The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.
The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
A way to assess Conent Area Literacy. Will determine whether a student can comprehend a specific text. Short for 'closure'.
The teacher deletes every fifth word, starting with the second sentence. The child read the passage without doing anything first and then reread the passage and attempts to write in the missing words.
Independent Reading Level - Over 60% of the missing words provided.
Instructional: Between 40 and 60% of the missing words provided.
Frustration: Fewer than 40% of the missing words provided.
Advantages of Independent Reading-
1. Familiarity with language patterns
2. Increases Fluency
3. Increases Vocab
4. Broadens knowledge of conent areas
5. Motivates further reading
1. I + I: interesting books at student's independent reading level
3. Reader/writers workshop. An hour or more a day when children read silently, small groups work on projects, and teacher meets with individual students and groups of kids who have similar needs. One or 2 days a week
Promoting Independent and At-Home Reading
1. Read aloud
2. Booktalks where teacher tries to 'sell' book to student
3. Books connected to other content areas
4. Trips to library
How can you promote books to students
1. word play
2. chants books
7. tongue-twisters Also called: "indirect" "embedded"
"Implicit" teaching of phonemic awareness
To help children read in depth text info:
"S"urvey--(skim) look at bold type, titles, etc.
"Q"uestion—write 2-3 questions they want answered
"R"ead—looking for answers to questions
"R"ecite—say outloud what they learned
"R"eview—use study Q’s & A’s to review
2. asking the teacher a question
3. use a dictionary
4. look at an illustration
Reading Repair strategies
1. visual- looking & repeated writing (doesn't work for all)
2. visual use of color-use crayons to highlight spelling patterns
3. auditory- child says the letter aloud as he writes
4. kinesthetic-write large letters in the air
5. tactile-use sandpaper, window screens & shaving cream
Categories of multi-sensory techniques that teach spelling
1. in isolation- spelling tests
2. in context- in everyday writing
2 ways of assessing spelling
1. Pre-writing- Students choose or narrow their topic. Children will generate main ideas and organize supporting detail. This can be accomplished by quick writes, drawing picture, writing outline, or using semantic web (cluster).
2. Drafting- Student composes first draft
3. Revising/Editing- Someone should edit the first draft (writer herself, teacher, or classmate). The writer then makes revisions based on editor's suggestions.
4. Final Draft- Usually revision completed in stage three will be draft, sometimes more drafts are needed.
stages in Writing Process
1. Differentiated Vocabulary Instruction: Use Visual aids and real objects.
2. Preview-Review: A preview of the lesson including objectives is given in the student's first language. After the lesson, a review of what was learned is provided in the first language.
3. Graphic Organizers/Outlines: Help ELs activate background knowledge and predict what they are about to read.
4. Teacher Model/Explicit Instruction: teachers should model any behaviour they want students to do themselves. Teachers should be very clear when they ask ELs to do something.
How you can support the reading development of ELs
The use of a letter/ group of letters to represent a speech sound in a language.
-technique in which student is led through a set of learning activities before, during, and after reading that
-intended to aid their comprehension and enjoyment.
Scoffolding Reading Experience
relationship between the symbols and sounds of a language
Words that sound alike but look different
Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings
An understanding of the ways in which letters, words, and sentences are represented on the page.
Concepts About Print
-test used to assess phoneme segmentation
(teacher says 22 words)
-child must provide each sound of the word in order
-when the teacher says dog, the correct response is /d/, /o/, /g/
Yopp Singer Assessment
A students is phonemically aware if they are able to perform all of the following tasks:
- Sound Matching,
- Sound Isolation,
- Sound Substitution,
- Sound Segmentation
- Sound Deletion,
- Sound Blending,
Start with sentences and then work back to the sound-symbol relationship that is the focus of the lesson.
(Whole to part lesson)
1. Present a set of sentences on a pice of chart paper, each sentence having a words with the common element. Underline the target word. Example (sh digraph)
2. Students read each sentence aloud with teacher. Students then read aloud the underlined word (cash, fish, mash, dish)
3. Teacher says "There is something about the underlined words that is the same. What is it?"
4. Teacher writes the letters sh on the board and points, while children make sh sound
5. Children re-read the target words one more time.
Strategy for Direct (Explicitly) teaching phonics
During word sorts, children are given cards that have one written word. Students must sort the words by their
For example, children could be given cards not, job, slow, fox, joke, load, top. They would sort the words into two groups - those with short o's and those with long o's.
Word sorts that help students learn phonics
Use a big book for a shared book experience.
Children will be able to see the words that the teacher is reading aloud.
For instance, for the cat and the hat teacher could use the book to introduce the 'at' rhyme.
Implicit or Indirectways of teaching phonics
-repeated readings of the same text
-will teach students to read at an appropriate pace, with appropriate pauses and stops, and proper inflection
-repeated readings of the same text -will teach students to read at an appropriate pace, with appropriate pauses and stops, and proper inflection
These lessons should be used with children who have not aquired the sound-symbol relationships appropriate for
their grade level.
when Direct Phonics lesson should be used
Using an IRI.
1. Administer a word recognition test using grade level word lists (start at 3rd grade level for 5th grader)
2. Stop when student misses more than 20% of words
3. Have the student read aloud from a graded series of passages (start 1 level below the highest level list the student passed)
4. For each passage tally the mis ques and ask 5-10 literal and inferential comprehension questions.
how to determine a student's Independent Reading Level
1. carries meaning
2. directionality & tracking
3. there is a difference between a letter, a word and a sentence (know boundaries)
4. book orientation which is cover? title? author's name? where does the story start?
Concepts of Print. (must be explicitly TAUGHT if unkown)
1. Read aloud to students
2. Shared Book Experience -big book -predictable book
3. LEA (Language Experience Approach)
4. Use environmental print
5. Provide a print rich environment: lables/captions, morning agenda calendar message, mail boxes
5 IMPLICIT ways to teach Concepts About Print
-various sources of information that might aide identification of an unrecognized word at first glance
-every good reader uses to decode words in the context of the text to help predict
The 3 main systems are:
1. Semantics (meaning)
2. Syntax (structural) and
3. Grapho-phonemic (visual or letter-sound information)
appraisal of student progress by using materials and procedures directly from the curriculum taught
-type of text used in beginning reading instruction, often from Little Books, for the purpose of fluency practice
-can be independently decoded or sounded out based on what the student knows
-contains many repetitions of sounds and phonic elements that students have already been taught along with a limited number of high-frequency words
-analyze spoken or graphic symbols of a familiar language in order to ascertain their intended meaning.
NOTE: to learn to read, one must learn conventional method in which something is written in order to decipher the written message.
In reading practice, the term is used primarily to refer to word identication rather than to identify higher units of meaning.
To act, process, or result of identifying the specific nature of a disorder or disability through observation and examinations.
-means only the identification and labeling of disorder
-the term used in education, includes the planning of instruction and an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the student.
-use of results of student performances on current tasks to plan future learning activities
-instruction in which diagnoses and instruction are fused into a single ongoing process
-test used to analyze strengths and weaknesses in content-oriented skills
NOTE: may permit comparison among several subabilities of the same individuals and sometimes comparisons of strong and weak points of a group or class.
Available instruments for the diagnosis of reading difficulties vary widely in the thoroughness of analysis they permit and in the specific procedures followed.
A combinations of two letters, either consonants or vowels, representing a single speech sound.
The consonant diagraphs in English are th, sh, ch, and wh, ph, ck, tch
-vowel produced when the tongue moves or glides from one vowel sound toward another vowel or semivowel sound in the same syllable, as /i/ in buy and vowel sounds in boy and bough.
-two or more vowels together
-medical term for developmental reading disability, which is presumably congenital and often hereditary, and which may vary in degree mild to severe.
NOTE: originally called word blindness, occurs in persons who have adequate vision, hearing, intelligence, and general language functioning
-frequently have difficulty in spelling and in acquiring a second language
-broad type of language disability, phonology are typical in most cases
The beginning stage of the development of the association of print with meaning that starts early in a child’s life and continues until the child reaches the stage of conventional reading and writing
“the reading and writing concepts and behaviors of young children that precede and develop into conventional literacy”
to change a message into
-oral language into writing and idea into words, or physical law into mathematical symbols
the study of the history of words
-intentional design and delivery of information by the teacher to the students.
1. The teacher’s modeling or demonstration of the skill or strategy
2. A structured and substantial opportunity for students to practice and apply newly taught skills and knowledge under the teacher’s direction and guidance
3. An opportunity for feedback
-clear, easy, and quick written or spoken expression of ideas
-in reading, this means freedom from word-identification problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading or hinder the expression of ideas in oral reading; automaticity.
reader whose performance meets or exceeds normal expectations with respect to age and ability; and independent reader
-reader who reads at an adequate pace with sufficient accuracy and correct intonation to enable comprehension to occur
readability or grade level of material that is too difficult to be read successfully by a student, even with normal classroom instruction and support.
-frustration level is reached when a student cannot read a selection with more than 89% word-recognition or decoding accuracy.
Frustration Reading Level
term used to classify literacy works into categories such as novels, mysteries, historical fiction, biography, short story, and poem
list of words ranked by grade level, reader level, or other level of difficulty of complexity
-often used to assess competence in word identification, knowledge of word-meaning, and spelling.
Graded Word List
written or printed representation of a phoneme as b of /b/ or oy for /oi/ in a boy.
relationship between a grapheme and the phoneme(s) it represents
letter-sound correspondence, as c representing /k/ in cat and /s/ in cent.
-visual representation of facts and concepts from a text and their relationships within an organized frame
-effective tools for thinking and learning
-help teachers and students represent abstract or implicit information in more concrete form,
-depict relationships among facts and concepts
-aid in organizing and elaborating ideas
-relate new information with prior knowledge
-effectively store and retrieve information.
-reading instruction conducted in small, flexible groups in which everyone reads simultaneously and for which the teacher provides the structure and purpose for reading and the purpse for responding to the material read
-Little Books are often used
-word that appears much more often than most other words in spoken or written language
-it is also known as a sight word
High Frequency Word
-use of a graded series of passages of increasing difficulty to determine students’ strengths, weaknesses, and strategies in word identification and comprehension and to determine a students’s independent, instruction, and frustration reading levels.
-comprehension questions are often asked after each passage is read.
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
shared writing experience used to assist emergent readers in learning to read and write
-with help from the teacher, students dictate sentences about a shared experience, such as a story, movie, or event
-teacher stretches each word orally so students can distinguish its sounds and letters as the use chart paper to write the letter while repeating the sound
-after each word has been completed, the teacher and students reread it and students take turns writing letters to complete the words and sentences
-completed charts are posted on the wall so students can reread them or rely on them for standard spelling
-spelling of sounds processed phonologically
(A child’s attempt to map speech to print.)
-also known as phonetic spelling and temporary spelling
location within a classroom in which students are presented with instruction materials, specific directions, clearly defined objectives, and opportunities for self-evaluation
Learning Center or Station
-awareness and knowledge of one’s mental processes
-“thinking about thinking”
-Ex: readers self-monitor their comprehension of text while “thinking about” their understanding of text, readers may adjust their reading speed to fit difficulty level
words that only differ in initial, medial, or final sound (pest/best, scrapple/scrabble, cat/cap)
Minimally Contrasting pairs
method for improving memory
-especially the use of pattern strategies to improve memorizing strings of facts.
-smallest unit of meaning
-can be a letter, syllable, affix, root, or base word
-when adding to a word, brings meaningful element or changes the meaning (addition of an s to the word book changes the meaning from one book to more than one book)
study of the structure and forms of words, including deviation, inflection, roots, base words, and combining forms.
in teaching practice, a word whose pronunciation may not be accurately predicted from its spelling.
pronouncable combination of graphic characters, usually trigrams, that do not make a word, as in kak, vor, mek, but are pronounced as English spellings
the art of study of correct spelling according to established usage
way language is written (encoded); spelling
form of collaborative learning in which students work with their peers in editing a piece of writing
smallest unit of speech
-when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the meaning of words in a language, as /b/ in book contrasts with /t/ in took, /k/ in cook with /h/ in hook.
relationship between a phoneme and graphemic representation(s), as /s/, spelled s in sit, c in city, ss in grass.
Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence
awareness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up spoken words
-awareness does not appear when young children talk; this ability is not necessary for speaking and understanding spoken language
-is important to understand the code of alphabetic languages and letters (and letter sounds)
-provides some understanding of the notions that words are made up of phonemes but insight is not always easily achieved
-phonemes are abstract units, and when one pronounces a word one does not produce a series of discrete phonemes; rather phonemes are folded into one another and are pronounced as a blend
-although most young children have no difficulty segmenting words into syllables, many find it difficult to segment at the phoneme level
-important predictor of success for beginning readers
Phonemic Awareness/ Phoneme Awareness
way of teaching, reading, and spelling that stresses syllable
-sound relationships, used more often in beginning instruction
-also refers the correspondence of sounds to the letters that represent them
in teaching practice, the identification of words by their sounds
graphic character or symbol that can represent a phonetic sound, phoneme, or word
-permissible part of accepted arrangements of speech sounds in forming morphemes and words
-rules for producing the phonemes in words
broader term than phonemic awareness
refers to language sensitivity and ability to manipulate language at the levels of words, syllables, rhymes, and individual speech sounds
meaningful affix attached before a base word root, as re in reprint
in a basal reading program, a booklet used before the first reader
-introduces students to features in texts and books and sometimes to introduce specific characters found later.
referring to activities designed to develop needed attitudes and skills before formal instruction in reading
initial creative and planning stage of writing
-prior to drafting, in which the writer formulates ideas, gathers information, and considers ways in which to organize a piece of writing
-first step in the writing process
beginning book for the teaching of reading
-specifically, the first formal textbook in reading program
-usually proceeded by a readiness book and one or more preprimers
first language a child learns to speak
in emergent literacy, a learners growing recognition of the conventions and characteristics of written language
-environment in which students are provided many opportunities to interact with print language, and an abundance and variety of printed materials are available and accessible
-students have many opportunity to read and to be read to
reading and writing are modeled by the teacher and used for a variety of authentic everyday purposes.
component of fluency that refers to reading with expression
which includes the use of appropriate emphasis, stress, intonation, pitch, pauses, and phrasing that demonstrates understanding of syntax and mechanics
modified sound of a vowel immediately proceeding /r/ in the same syllable, as in care, never, sir, curse, etc
R-controlled vowel sound
-the number of different words that are recognized without word-analysis,
-words understood quickly and easily
correspondence of ending sounds of words or lines of verse
vowel and any of the following consonants of a syllable
as /ook/ in book, /ik/ in strike, and /a/ on play
temporary support, guidance, or assistance provided to a student on a new or complex task
-Ex: students work in partnership with a more advanced peer or adult who scaffold the task by engaging in appropriate instructional interactions designed to model, assist, or provide necessary information
-interactions should eventually lead to independence
-diacritical mark that indicates the vowel sound in an unstressed syllable of a word
-can be spelled with any of the vowel letters
-is represented by the symbol X (box around)
-study of meaning in language
-as the analysis of meaning in words, phrases, sentences, discourse, and entire texts.
-word the is immediately recognized as a whole
-does not require word analysis for identification
-word taught as a whole
-also known as a high frequency word
application of phonic skills in reproducing the sound(s) represented by a letter or letter group in a word.
graphic organizer of major events and ideas from a story to help guide students’ thinking and heighten their awareness of the structure of stories
teacher can model this process by filling out a chart on a project image while reading
students complete a chart individually or in groups after a story is read, illustrating or noting the character, setting, compare/contrast, problem/solution, climax, conflict, and so forth
-identification of word-meaning elements
-as re and read in reread, to help understand the meaning of a word as a whole
meaningful affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes meaningful or grammatical function of the word
as –en added to ox from oxen
in phonology, a minimal unit of subsequential speech sounds composed of a vowel sound or a vowel-consonant combination
as in /a/, /ba/, /bab/, etc
division of words into syllables
1. study of way sentences are formed and the grammatical rules that govern their formation.
2. pattern or structure of word order in sentences, clauses, and phrases
-examines the various ways that words can be combines to create meaning
-direct teaching of patterns is critical for comprehension of higher-level texts as well as for the development of good writing
way of teaching beginning reading by starting with word parts or elements, as sounds, or syllables, and later combining them into words
Synthetic Method of Phonics
1. The process of perceiving similarities and differences in stimuli by sight
2. The ability to engage in such process
1. voiced speech sound made without stoppage or friction of the air flow as it passes through the vocal tract
2. letter or letters that represents a vowel sound
graphic organizer that is used to involve students in thinking about and planning what they will study, learn, read about, or write about within a larger topic
-teacher may begin with brainstorming discussion of topics related to a particular theme and then represent subtopics through the use of a ___ drawn on the board
-can be used to encourage students to consider what they know about each subtopic or what they want to learn.
-list of related words posted in the classroom
-often written on cards, to increase students’ exposure to infrequently occurring vocabulary words that they would usually encounter only in specialized contexts
-the words can be related to topic of study, or in other cases can be related by common spelling patterns
group of letters consisting of a vowel or vowel team followed by a consonant or consonant blend (rime)
to which many different onsets (consonants or consonant blends) can be added.
-also known as spelling patterns phonographs
child’s manipulation of sounds and words for language exploration and practice or for pleasure
(using alliteration, creating rhymes, singing songs, clapping syllables, etc.)
systematically organized collection of words displayed in large letters or on cards on a wall or other large display space in the classroom
-usually listed under their beginning letter
-purpose is to work on spelling by displaying sight words and words that belong to word families
series of sequential steps involved in a writing project including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing
repeated drafting, revising, and editing may occur several times during the process
a bound (nonword) morpheme that changes meaning or function of root or stem to which it is attached
as the prefix ad- and suffix –ing is adjoining
assumption underlying alphabetic writing systems that each speech or phoneme of a language should have its own distinctive graphic representation
which a letter or group of letters of the alphabet
a whole-to-part approach to word study in which the student is first taught a number of sight words and then relevant phonic generalizations
which are subsequently applies to other words; deductive phonics.
ability to fuse discrete phonemes into recognizable spoken words
full range of mental activity involved in reacting to auditory stimuli
considering their meanings in relation to past experience and to their future use
ability to recognize a word (or series of words) in text effortlessly and rapidly
collection of student texts and workbooks, teacher’s manuals, and supplemental materials used for development of reading/language arts and sometimes writing instruction
used chiefly in the elementary and middle school grades
Basal Reading Program
-to combine the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word
-to sound out
-the instance of two or more consonants appearing together in a word but each of the consonant sounds remaining an independent phoneme
-essence and ultimate purpose of reading
-ability to gain meaning from what is read
-hierarchy of skills ranges from concrete to abstract, and it includes levels such as literal, inferential, analytical, and evaluative
-various levels of skills are also referred to as lower-older and higher-order skills
familiarity with print conventions
-such as reading left to right, top to bottom; the direction of print on a page; the use of spaces to denote words; the idea that print represents words and punctuations
-important predictor of learning to read
Concepts of print
1. speech sound made by partial or complete closure of part of the vocal tract, which obstructs air flow and causes audible friction in varying amounts.
2. letters of the alphabet that are not vowels