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The TSH stimulates the ________ gland to secrete _______.
thyroid gland; T3 and T4
The _________ gland is located at the base of the brain.
Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrets:
Aunt Petunia says:
- Pro Prolactin
- Athletes ACTH
- Got GH
- To TSH
- Love LH
- Fish FSH
They thyroid gland:
- 2 lobes (LEFT and RIGHT)
- very vascular
- lies over the trachea
- requires iodine
- regulates growth
- regulates metabolism
Gland that produces a hormone that elevates serum calcium.
Calcitonin does what?
LOWERS the serum calcium level
PTH acts on _________ and __________ to increase Ca.
kidneys and bones
Calcitonin is produced by the _________ gland.
The _________ gland contains the Islet of Langerhan.
The pancreas produces _________ and _________ cells.
Alpha cells secrete _________.
Beta cells secrete _________.
_________ is necessary for glucose to be transported across cell membranes.
What hormone raises serum glucose levels?
glucagon...breaks down glycogen into glucose
Which hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?
- cortisol (glucocorticosterioids)
- aldosterone (mineralcorticosteroids)
Cortisol is an _________ and does what?
antiinflammatory; raises blood sugar
What are the 2 parts of the adrenal gland?
cortex and medulla
What hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla?
- norepinephrine AKA noradrenalin
- epinepherine AKA adrenalin
What produces estrogen?
What produces progesterone?
What is the function of the GH?
Promotes growth of all body tissues
What is the function of TSH?
stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones such as thyroxine
What is the function of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)?
stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones such as cortisole and aldosterone
What is the function of prolactin?
stimulates the secretion of milk by the mammary glands
What is the function of LH?
development of corpus luteum at the rupture site of the ovarian follicle in females OR stimulates secretion of testosterone in males
What is the function of ADH?
- helps with reabsorption of water in kidney tubules
- stimulates smooth muscle tissue of blood vessels to constrict
What secretes ADH? and which lobe?
posterior lobe of pituitary
What is the function of thyroxine?
- influences physical and mental activities
- increaess metabolic rate required for normal growth
What is the function of calcitonin?
LOWER calcium leven in blood! Takes from blood and stores it in bones
What is the function of PTH?
Increase blood Ca level! Takes from bone to blood
What is the function of cortisol?
aids in metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats
What produces cortisol? and which part?
What is the function of aldosterone?
helps regulate electrolytes and water balance
What produces aldosterone?
What is the function of glucagon?
- Raises BS level
- acts on liver to change glycogen into glucose
Rapid acting insulin is taken with the first bite of food; 2 brands are: _________ and_________;
humalog and novolog
- The onset: 15 min
- The peak: 60 min
- The duration: 4 hrs
Short actiong insulins (clear), _________ and _________ , have an
- Humulin R and Novolin R
- onset of: 30 min
- peak of: 2 hrs
- duration of: 8 hrs
Intermediate insulins (N)
- onset of: 1 hr
- peak of: 4 hrs
- duration of: 18 hrs
Long acting insulin (clear):
- onset of: 4 hrs
- peak of: none
- duration of: 24 hrs
What is a complication of insulin therapy that results in a rebound hyperglycemia in response to hypoglycemia?
What is a complication of insulin therapy that results in an increase in fasting blood glucose levels between 5 and 9 am that is not related to hypoglycemia?
What should you expect to find in a hypoglycemic pt?
- decreasing level of consciousness
What should you expect to find with a pt with ketoacidosis?
- Kussmaul's respirations
- orthostatic hypotension
- change in level of consciousness
What disorder is caused by increased GH before puberty?
- S/s: occurs BEFORE puberty; great hight; enlarged heart, liver, and spleen; hyperglycemia
- Diet: High cal and nutrients
- Meds/Nursing: verbalize feelings; observe for s/s of DM; monitor for CV disease
What disorder is caused by increased GH after puberty?
- S/s: enlarged hands, feet, skull, joints; protrusion of lower jaw; coarse facial features; kyphosis; hyperglycemia; enlarged heart, liver, and spleen
- Diet: regular
- Meds/Nursing: verbalize feelings; observe for s/s of DM; surgery (observe for transiet diabetes insipidus)
What disorder is caused by decreased ADH?
- Diabetes Insipidus
- S/s: greater urinary output; low specific gravity of urine; hypovolemia; increased thirst; output will not be less than intake
- Diet: regular but increase fluids
- Meds/Nursing: monitor hydration status; I&O; check specific gravity of urine