Med-Surg Exam 8

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mel26704
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161834
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Med-Surg Exam 8
Updated:
2012-07-11 21:55:28
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Endocrine disorders med surg
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Endocrine disorders
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  1. The TSH stimulates the ________ gland to secrete _______.
    thyroid gland; T3 and T4
  2. The _________ gland is located at the base of the brain.
    pituitary gland
  3. Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrets:
    Aunt Petunia says:
    • Pro            Prolactin
    • Athletes     ACTH
    • Got           GH
    • To            TSH
    • Love         LH  
    • Fish          FSH
  4. They thyroid gland:
    • 2 lobes (LEFT and RIGHT)
    • very vascular
    • lies over the trachea
    • requires iodine
    • regulates growth
    • regulates metabolism
  5. Gland that produces a hormone that elevates serum calcium.
    Parathyroid gland
  6. Calcitonin does what?
    LOWERS the serum calcium level
  7. PTH acts on _________ and __________ to increase Ca.
    kidneys and bones
  8. Calcitonin is produced by the _________ gland.
    thyroid gland
  9. The _________ gland contains the Islet of Langerhan.
    Pancreas
  10. The pancreas produces _________ and _________ cells.
    • alpha
    • beta
  11. Alpha cells secrete _________.
    Beta cells secrete _________.
    glucagon; insulin
  12. _________ is necessary for glucose to be transported across cell membranes.
    Insulin
  13. What hormone raises serum glucose levels?
    glucagon...breaks down glycogen into glucose
  14. Which hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?
    • cortisol (glucocorticosterioids)
    • aldosterone (mineralcorticosteroids)
  15. Cortisol is an _________ and does what?
    antiinflammatory; raises blood sugar
  16. What are the 2 parts of the adrenal gland?
    cortex and medulla
  17. What hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla?
    • norepinephrine AKA noradrenalin
    • epinepherine AKA adrenalin
  18. What produces estrogen?
    ovarian follicle
  19. What produces progesterone?
    corpus luteum
  20. What is the function of the GH?
    Promotes growth of all body tissues
  21. What is the function of TSH?
    stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones such as thyroxine
  22. What is the function of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)?
    stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones such as cortisole and aldosterone
  23. What is the function of prolactin?
    stimulates the secretion of milk by the mammary glands
  24. What is the function of LH?
    development of corpus luteum at the rupture site of the ovarian follicle in females  OR stimulates secretion of testosterone in males
  25. What is the function of ADH?
    • helps with reabsorption of water in kidney tubules
    • stimulates smooth muscle tissue of blood vessels to constrict
  26. What secretes ADH? and which lobe?
    posterior lobe of pituitary
  27. What is the function of thyroxine?
    • influences physical and mental activities
    • increaess metabolic rate required for normal growth
  28. What is the function of calcitonin?
    LOWER calcium leven in blood!  Takes from blood and stores it in bones
  29. What is the function of PTH?
    Increase blood Ca level! Takes from bone to blood
  30. What is the function of cortisol?
    aids in metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats
  31. What produces cortisol? and which part?
    Adrenal cortex
  32. What is the function of aldosterone?
    helps regulate electrolytes and water balance
  33. What produces aldosterone?
    adrenal gland
  34. What is the function of glucagon?
    • Raises BS level
    • acts on liver to change glycogen into glucose
  35. Rapid acting insulin is taken with the first bite of food; 2 brands are: _________ and_________; 
    The onset:
    The peak:
    The duration:
    humalog and novolog

    • The onset: 15 min
    • The peak:  60 min
    • The duration: 4 hrs
  36. Short actiong insulins (clear), _________ and _________ , have an
    onset of: 
    peak of: 
    duration of:
    • Humulin R and Novolin R
    • onset of: 30 min
    • peak of: 2 hrs
    • duration of: 8 hrs
  37. Intermediate insulins (N)
    • onset of: 1 hr
    • peak of: 4 hrs
    • duration of: 18 hrs
  38. Long acting insulin (clear):
    onset of:
    peak of:
    duration of: 
    • onset of: 4 hrs
    • peak of: none
    • duration of: 24 hrs
  39. What is a complication of insulin therapy that results in a rebound hyperglycemia in response to hypoglycemia?
    somogyi phenomenon
  40. What is a complication of insulin therapy that results in an increase in fasting blood glucose levels between 5 and 9 am that is not related to hypoglycemia?
    dawn phenomenon
  41. What should you expect to find in a hypoglycemic pt?
    • tachycardia
    • anxiety
    • trembling
    • decreasing level of consciousness 
  42. What should you expect to find with a pt with ketoacidosis?
    • Kussmaul's respirations
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • hypertension
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • lethargy
    • change in level of consciousness
  43. What disorder is caused by increased GH before puberty?
    S/s:
    Diet:
    Meds/Nursing:
    • Giantism
    • S/s:  occurs BEFORE puberty; great hight; enlarged heart, liver, and spleen; hyperglycemia
    • Diet:  High cal and nutrients
    • Meds/Nursing:  verbalize feelings; observe for s/s of DM; monitor for CV disease
  44. What disorder is caused by increased GH after puberty?
    S/s:
    Diet:
    Meds/Nursing:  
    • Acromegaly
    • S/s:  enlarged hands, feet, skull, joints; protrusion of lower jaw; coarse facial features; kyphosis; hyperglycemia; enlarged heart, liver, and spleen
    • Diet:  regular
    • Meds/Nursing:  verbalize feelings; observe for s/s of DM; surgery (observe for transiet diabetes insipidus)
  45. What disorder is caused by decreased ADH?
    S/s:
    Diet:
    Meds/Nursing:  
    • Diabetes Insipidus
    • S/s:  greater urinary output; low specific gravity of urine; hypovolemia; increased thirst; output will not be less than intake
    • Diet:  regular but increase fluids
    • Meds/Nursing:  monitor hydration status; I&O; check specific gravity of urine

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