# Praxis 2 - Test1

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1. What is the purpose of expressing fractions as a ratio?
Expressing a fraction as a ratio emphasizes the relationship between the two numbers. For example, 3/5 can be expressed as "the ratio of 3 to 5."  The usual notation is 3:5.  3:5 is the same ratio as 3/5 or 3 to 5.  For example: The team won 3/5th of their games giving them a winning ratio of 3:5.
2. Andy is a kindergarten student who is participating in Kid-Writing activities.  He writes the following:mi dawg iz big. he runs n runs wth me. he finds a bawl.  i luv mi dawg.At  which stage of spelling development is Andy?
• The transitional stageThe stages are: Pre-communication stage: The student randomly uses letters. Pre-phonetic stage: The student uses some letters
• correctly. Phonetic stage: The student spells words the way they
• sound. Transitional stage:  The student uses both correct spelling and phonetic spelling. Correct spelling:  The student spells the words correctly.Andy is correctly spelling some, but not all words.  He spells some words phonetically.
3. Mrs. Carson is reading aloud to her kindergarten class. She stops frequently and asks herself questions about the text. She sometimes goes back and rereads a passage to help answer the questions she has asked. What process of comprehension is Mrs. Carson modeling?
Self-monitoring Making personal connections to reading is a powerful process needed for comprehension. Students  connect personal experiences and memories to reading or make connections to other texts.  They can then note similarities or differences between their previous experiences and the new text. When students use their senses to relate to a text, they are imaging.  They might think about the sights, sounds, smells, tastes and feelings a text invokes.  Predicting means making an educated guess about what might happen next based on what you already know, perhaps from perusing the title and illustration or connecting information to previous reading or experiences.  Self-monitoring occurs during reading.  Readers double-check and review information for reasonableness and accuracy.  Mrs. Carson's questioning her understanding of the text and going back to check is a self-monitoring skill.
4. Which of the following assignments would help your sixth grade social studies class understand the Truman Doctrine which argued that the United States should support free peoples who were resisting Communist domination?
You find out that the first grade recess has been reduced because the second graders want more time.  You think that the second graders are being unfair.  You decide to present an argument to the principal that all recesses should have equal time. Work in a group to construct your argument.Truman argued that the United States had an obligation to support free peoples who were resisting oppressing Communist governments.  The U.S. has sent aid in many such situations. This activity would help the students see how a group can support a group being oppressed by another.  Creative activities, such as this, can help students understand complicated issues.
5. Teachers often conduct mini-lessons when teaching writing. Which of the following is most important when planning writing mini-lessons?
Each mini-lesson should focus on a single point that is emphasized by the teacher.Mini-lessons are short lessons which focus on a single skill.  This is a good way for the teacher to model writing strategies.  Teachers can write along with the students on the same topics or choose a model which will effectively communicate the strategy being targeted.
6. Teachers use spelling games to help students practice spelling patterns and recognize standard spelling.  Which activity below might be called What Looks Right?
Mr. W. puts three words on the board:  gote  goat  got.  He asks his students to decide which looks correct for the animal that bleats and has horns.In Use the Words You Know, students use the letter or rhyme patterns to find or create other words which match the pattern.  In Making Words, students manipulate words by changing one letter to make a new word.  With Word Sorts students sort an existing list of words by characteristic.  With What Looks Right? students try to determine which is the correct spelling of the word according to visual and spelling clues.  All of these activities are enjoyable and good ways to teach spelling skills and word patterns.
7. Which of the following questions posed on the state standard assessment requires the student to use the highest level thinking skill?
How can ecosystem affect population density?This question requires the students to apply what they know about ecosystems and synthesize this information with information about population density. This requires reasoning and has some complexity. The other choices are all knowledge or comprehension level questions.
8. Read the following examples. Which teacher is correctly using Choral reading with a class?
Mr. Holmes assigns groups parts in a play.  Each group will read their part together. They practice every day and present the play to the class on Friday.Repeated reading is an excellent tool for increasing fluency.  Echo reading is reading one sentence at a time and having students repeat it as an echo would.  Choral reading is reading with the teacher in a group or having groups assigned to read together. This works well with poetry or dramas.  Reading with a tape recorded reading gives students practice with fluency.  Pre-recorded readings give good examples of prosody.
9. Which activity would help a student who is having trouble with the left to right tracking of print?
The teacher sits with the student to write simple sentences in her journal. The teacher then reads the sentence back to the student tracking under each word. The teacher transfers the sentence to a sentence strip, cuts the words apart and helps the student recreate the sentence.This activity would help with left to right tracking since the teacher models the correct tracking and then helps the student recreate the deconstructed sentence. This could be compared to the original journal sentence.  Children could also write sentences with teacher help going from left to right.
10. The school librarian likes to have book talks every month with her fifth grade students.  Which of the following is not an example of a book talk?
A student sits in the reader's chair and reads a picture book to the class.  He then leads a group discussion.When doing a book talk, someone presents a brief summary of the book, reads excerpts, makes comments, and tries to build interest in the book.  The presenter tries to get his listeners to want to read the book.  This can be done with "sneak previews," advertisements or book "selling" by someone from the reader's chair.
11. A kindergarten student asks her teacher why she has placed plants in the classroom aquarium. She asks her students to give her the reasons they think the plants are there. Which is the most correct science answer?
The fish use the plants to help them breathe.Plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. The fish get oxygen from the water which is transferred from the plants.  The fish use oxygen to digest their food which ends up as a waste product which contains carbon dioxide. This can be used by the plants.
12. Mrs. Hamilton challenges her students to find the volume of boxes she has placed at various stations.  Groups circulate from station to station and work together to find the volume. Mrs. H, has provided resources at each station.  Which group may need some review in this concept?
Group C measures the sides of each face of the box.  They then multiply the two measures.  They add together the products they get from measuring each face.Group C is confused. They are measuring the area of the faces of the box.  Volume is measured in cubic units. Area is measured in square units.  The formula for volume of a rectangular is length times width time height.
13. Mrs. Hanover poses the following to her class:Amy is having a party. She knows that each of her friends can eat three small slices of pizza or two large slices of pizza.  She also knows that she can get pizza divided into eight small slices or six large slices.  She is inviting 5 friends.  How many pizzas will she have to buy if she gets the eight-slice pizza and how many will she have to get if she chooses the six-slice pizza?  If pizzas cost \$10.00, how much will she spend with either choice?Mrs. Hanover then groups her students to solve the problem. She provides materials to manipulate to help the groups solve the problem. Which type of lesson is Mrs. Hanover conducting?
An inquiry lessonWhen a teacher instructs from the general to the specific, she is teaching with deductive reasoning. She would teach the general rules and then have the students apply them to specific problems.  When teaching with inductive reasoning, the teacher introduces a concept and the students then make inferences from the data and develop generalizations. For example, the teacher might show several examples of subtraction problems with two places and ask the students to identify the rule.  A discovery or inquiry lesson would start with an intriguing problem which would lead the students to brainstorm possible solutions. Students might use models or make tables to solve the problem.  Inquiry lessons use inductive reasoning skills.
14. A third grade teacher is introducing multiplication to her students. Which would be a concrete model for multiplication?
Use an array.  Put five blocks in four rows to show 4*5 = 20An array can be used to model a multiplication problem.  The first number is the number of rows. The second number is the number of blocks in each row:    xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx Here the blocks are represented as "x"   The students can count, "5, 10, 15, 20." .
15. Which of the following activities helps readers develop the most emergent reading skills?
Sharing a Big Book.A competent teacher can use a Big Book to teach: 1.  Print conventions -- tracking top to bottom, left to right 2. Word and sentence constructions 3.  Decoding 4. Reading jargon 5. Letter-sound connections 6.  Phonemic awareness 7.  Comprehension skills -- predicting, inferring, connections, evaluating etc. 8.  Fluency 9. The general enjoyment of reading and much more
16. Which thinker of the Enlightenment believed that people were capable of governing themselves and influence the American colonists in seeking independence?
Jean-Jacques RousseauBenedict de Spinoza developed rational pantheism.  He equated God with nature.  John Calvin proposed the doctrine of predestination.  Rene Descartes stated "I think, therefore I am."  John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau thought that people were capable of governing themselves politically (Locke) and with a social contract (Rousseau.) These thinkers influenced the American Revolutionaries.
17. Mrs. North is combining a science and math lesson. She gives each group of students a strong magnet and an assortment of objects. She asks her students to sort the objects using the magnet. Which math  concept is she asking her students to perform?
Classifying objects in a setA set is a real or imagined collection of objects which may or may not be related.  When students sort items according to specific criteria, they are classifying the objects in the set.  Here they sort items which are or are not attracted by the magnets. When ordering in sets, a student might sort from smallest to largest or vice versa.  When patterning objects, they must repeat a pattern. When comparing, they might use the concept of one-to-one correspondence for two sets or use a numerical total for the set.
18. Mr. Thomson asks his class to list the multiples of 9.  Which of the following is correct?
9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99The multiples of any whole number are the results of multiplying that whole number by the counting numbers.  These are the multiples when you multiply 9 times 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11.  A trick often taught is that if you add the two numbers in a multiple of nine, the sum will be nine. For example, 72, 7 + 2 = 9.
19. The most important rule in science lessons is "safety first."  Which of the following is not accepted procedure for the storing of chemical substances in the classroom?
Chemicals can be kept no longer than two years before being replaced.Chemicals should be purged and replaced at least once a year.  If they are kept longer, they may not be effective or safe.  Chemicals should be inventoried and monitored. Chemical storage areas must be out of the reach of students and locked.  Signs should be posted.  The area should be uncluttered and well lighted.  Substances which can dilute or absorb a chemical spill must be included.  No explosive chemicals are allowed in a classroom.
20. Students should be introduced to the four main types of map projections.  What are these?
Conic, cylindrical, interrupted and planeStudents should be able to identify each of the four major types of map projections.  With a cylindrical map, a cylinder is imagined to circle the globe and the lines of longitude and latitude are projected onto the cylinder from the spherical globe.  This can stretch the distances from east to west.  With a conic map, meridians are drawn in equal distances from a central point, usually a pole. A plane map imagines a flat surface onto which places on the globe are projected.  An interrupted map "opens up" a globe leaving spaces empty to represent the less important areas, such as the expanses of the ocean.
21. Phonemic awareness is comprised of several critical components. These include all of the following except:
Activating prior knowledge  This is a comprehension strategy.  Hearing and producing rhyme, blending sounds, segmenting words, and recognizing alliteration are phonemic skills.  These can also help with spelling skills.
22. Which of the following experiments done by a science teacher in the intermediate grades shows a chemical change?
She places 0.25 teaspoon of baking soda in a tissue square and places it in a small container of vinegar.A change in the size, shape, or appearance of a material is a physical change. Such changes can be melting, bending, or cracking. Changes which alter the molecular structure of matter are chemical changes.  Burning, rusting, and digesting all involve chemical changes.  When compounds combine or recombine to form new compounds, this is a chemical reaction which this experiment demonstrates.
23. Your students are having trouble understanding the difference between counting numbers and whole numbers.  Which activity would be a good way to explain the difference?
Ask your students to put out 7 blocks on a table and count them. Then ask them to remove all the blocks and tell how many blocks are left on the table.When the students count the blocks on the table, they are using counting numbers. When they say that there are zero blocks on the table, they are using whole numbers.  Whole numbers are counting numbers plus zero.  The students must have a concept of quantities and zero in order to understand this difference.
24. Current events should be a part of a social studies curriculum.  One issue often in the news is the U.S. support of NAFTA. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) eliminated most trade tariffs and other trade barriers between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.  Like many acts of our government, it was proposed by one administration and signed into law in another. Which of the following is correct concerning NAFTA?
Negotiated by the G.H.W. Bush administration and signed by B. Clinton in 1993The North American Free Trade Agreement was negotiated by the first Bush administration and signed by Bill Clinton in 1993. It became law in January 1994.  This agreement has been the cause of much debate, especially during presidential election years.  It might be a good subject for discussion with an intermediate level social studies class in a diverse society.
25. Ann, a fourth grade student, has always been well-behaved.  One day you notice that she has a collection of other students' belongings in her desk. Explain what you would do and your reasons for doing so.
Since Ann has not displayed any improper behaviors in the past, I would want to find out what might cause this aberration.  I would ask Ann to stay inside during recess and ask her about the items.  If she seems distressed, I would try to determine if anything has caused her to do this or ask her if she has a reason. Based on her answers,  I would plan further actions, which might include having her return the items, calling home, or asking the guidance counselor to investigate.
26. The Rangers have had a winning streak. This year they have won 15 of their games. If they have played 23 games, what is the correct notation for showing their wins?Which student answered correctly?
Louise: The correct ratio for wins is 15:23.The team won 15 out of 23 total games. This can be expressed as 15/23 or 15:23. Expressing a fraction as a ratio emphasizes the relationship between the two numbers. For example, 3/5 can be expressed as "the ratio of 3 to 5."  The usual notation is 3:5.  3:5 is the same ratio as 3/5 or 3 to 5.  For example: The team won 3/5th of their games giving them a winning ratio of 3:5.
27. Mrs. Calabash is completing a unit on ecology with her second grade class. She asks them to illustrate the vocabulary terms which have been used in the unit.  Barry draws a herd of zebras. Which term is Barry most likely illustrating?
A populationBarry drew a group of similar organisms, the zebras. The study of the relationship between living things and their environment is called ecology.  All the living and non-living things surrounding an organism is its environment.  A group of similar organisms, like a school of fish, is a population.  A group of populations which interact is called a community. An example would be the animals and plants in a forest.  A group of populations that share a common pool of resources and a common area is an ecosystem.
28. A second grade teacher is using structural analysis to help her students read a list of words. Read the list of words and decide which of the following rules applies. bubble    purple    puzzle    tattle
When -le comes at the end of a word and the consonant comes before it, the consonant goes with the -le.The rules of structural analysis can be confusing for young readers.  They need to be introduced gradually.  This rule would not be introduced before second grade for most readers.
29. An ERT (Everybody Read To...) activity can be a good multilevel comprehension technique for differentiating learning.  Why is an ERT effective for many leveled readers?
After the group reads silently, the teacher asks a variety of literal and inferential questions.An ERT activity asks students to read silently or quietly with purpose to a particular place.  Then the teacher guides the students as they figure out the meaning of the text together.  Even struggling readers will find some answers as they review the text with the group.   Passages can be read aloud by the teacher or a more confident reader and the struggling readers can make connections to what they read silently on their own.  This encourages more to participate and aids comprehension.
30. The guidance counselor hosts a career fair at her school every spring. She asks members of various professions to come to the school and set up a table with representative tools, products etc.  Students come to the tables and can ask questions or perhaps try out an activity. Which of the following would this career fair best support?
Economics and productivityThis activity deals with the types of work that people do.  This supports a unit in economics and how the work  force supports productivity.  Civics deals with government structures.  Geography is the structures and patterns of the Earth.  Demographics deals with population issues.
31. Students taking standardized tests must be aware of the precise vocabulary used in mathematics. Which is correct?
An algorithm is the form in which we write a math problem. The algorithm for addition is a + b = c.Addition and subtraction are inverse operations.  What addition does, subtraction undoes.  Both are binary operations.  Only two numbers can be added or subtracted at a time.  The answer in an addition problem is called the sum. The answer in a subtraction problem is the difference. In multiplication, the answer is the product. In division, the answer is the quotient. Addition and subtraction should be taught in tandem. Multiplication and division, also related operations, should be taught together also.
32. Mrs. Cornetta is using a picture of a hockey player to help students remember the structures of the human body.  She has labeled the photo in the following ways. Which label is incorrect?
She has labeled his helmet as a tendon.Teachers sometimes use visual aides to show complex concepts.  Ligaments are connective tissues which hold bones together, like the ace bandage.  Tendons attach bones to skeletal muscles.  A joint is the area where bones come together, like the bend in the hockey stick.  Cartilage covers bone surfaces to protect them from friction.  A helmet might be labeled as a bone or skull.
33. During a writing activity the teacher writes a paragraph on the white board for the students to analyze. The teacher asks for volunteers to come up to proofread and add proofreading marks at the board.  Then she asks them to read the sentences they have written in their journals and to use the same proofreading marks. Which skill is she focusing on?
ConventionsConventions are the editing and revising parts of writing. These students are working on conventions.  Voice describes the writer's emotions, opinions, and personality.  Ideas are the message the writer wants to convey.  Organization is clarifying and organizing the writer's thoughts.
34. Mrs. Streep puts the above on the white board. She asks her students to convert the mixed numbers to decimals to find out if this equation is correct. What should be their first step to solve this problem?
Convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions and then divide.3 3/12 equals 39/12.  3 1/4 equals 13/4.  Divide 39 by 12 and the quotient is 3.25.  Divide 13/4 by 4 and the answer is 3.25. The mixed numbers are equivalent.
35. Mrs. Jobs is demonstrating a process of learning which involves questioning and dialogue with her students.  Which of the following is this method associated with?
SocratesThe Socratic method uses a system of questioning and emphasizes dialogue.  Mrs. Jobs is using this technique. The Sophists emphasized rhetoric, grammar, music, and mathematics.  Pericles rebuilt Athens.  Pliny was a Roman historian.
36. Response to literature is a strategy used by teachers for building reading comprehension. Which of the has the least effect on a reader's response to literature?
The individual reader's instructional levelMany things affect a reader's response to literature.  Cultural and social norms must be considered.  Students who live in collaborative societies, for example, might respond better to group projects.  Personal experiences provide hooks for making connections with literature.  Classroom societies which are student-centered promote greater participation and confidence.  Readers at any level can respond to literature in many meaningful ways.
37. Students must be taught to formulate hypotheses which can be tested. Which of the following is an example of a testable question?
Will a meal worm be able to climb up a paper plate, a paper towel, the side of a glass, or a piece of aluminum foil?A testable question must identify specific variables which can be measured and controlled in an experiment that seeks to establish a connection.  Here the students want to see if the surface makes a difference in the ability of a meal worm to climb.  The other questions cannot be tested with controls or are a matter of opinion.
38. Students are often taught to use the SQ3R plan, a mnemonic device to remind them to survey, question, read, recite and review when reading. Which of the following questions would help the students with the first step of SQ3R?
Are there illustrations with captions?  What are the section headings?  Are there words in bold type?These are survey questions, the first step of SQ3R.  Students also have to read the questions after the selection to find clues, recite their answers before writing them and double-check their answers before going on.  Students use these steps to become text-smart.
39. Mr. Zarber's class has just read a retelling of Little Red Riding Hood.  He asks his class the following question. Which part of the QAR comprehension strategy is Mr. Zarber using in this question?How does the Wolf try to trick Little Red Riding Hood when she gets to Grandma's house?
A right there question To answer this question, the students would find the information directly in the text. A QAR (Question-Answer Relationship, Raphael, 1982) helps students understand that much of what is gained from reading does not come directly from the text.  The teacher uses three types of questions: the right on the page, the think and search, and the on my own. The right on the page questions can be found directly from the text. The think and search questions can be directly inferred from the text.  The on my own questions are related to the students own experiences or ideas.  Students can learn to distinguish which type of question is being asked and also to construct questions at each level.  OARs can be used with fiction and non-fiction texts.  Students learn to make predictions, draw conclusions, make generalizations and evaluate texts.
40. An effective teacher of social studies uses a variety of resources to enhance the curriculum.  Which is a list of primary sources which might be used with a sixth grade class studying world history?
Diaries, logbooks, artifacts, lettersDiaries, logbooks, artifacts, ledgers, oral histories, letters and census reports are all primary resources. Authors often use these to support literature meant for young readers.  Novels using primary sources are a good example for students who are researching for reports.  Textbooks, non-fiction texts and encyclopedias are secondary resources.
41. Students respond to literature in various ways.  Stories can be recreated in various mediums. Which is not a criteria for story retellings/recreations as a response to literature?
One student should be assigned each role.Story retellings can be done in many ways. Stories can be retold using puppets, pantomime, dramatizations, collages, flip books, and reader's theaters. Students can work in pairs, solo, or in groups.  Parts can be assigned to groups for performance. This is especially effective with reluctant readers. Props can be used. Visual representations are also helpful. These activities can help with comprehension and fluency.
42. Your class is about to begin a selection about travel on the Mississippi River.  Which graphic organizer would work best to help guide the readers' thinking while reading this text?
A KWL chartA K(what I know), W(what I want to find out), L(what I learned) chart is a good graphic organizer for guiding readers when reading an informational text.  Students brainstorm for prior knowledge, ask questions they hope will be answered by the text, and list answers to those questions garnered while reading, along with other new information found in the text.   Webs, data charts, and times lines are three types of graphic organizers used for comprehension.  Before choosing a graphic organizer, the teacher should decide what the purpose of the organizer will be.  Choosing the correct organizer should support the organization of the text.
43. The U.S. Department of Education recognizes the importance of early literacy experiences in the development of effective readers. Which statement is correct according to the U.S. Dept. of Ed.?
Parents are their children's first and most influential teachers.The U.S. Department of Education recognizes the positive influence a parent can have on a child's academic success.  Parents who read to their children help them become better readers.  Reading to children is more effective than using workbooks for reading skills.  Reading aloud can strengthen writing , reading, and speaking skills. Children want to please and imitate their parents so if they read aloud to them, the children will want to read also.
44. Which of the following definitions is correct?
Anthropology is the study of human culture.  Anthropologists study human culture.  Anthropologists include archaeologists, primatologists, ethnographers, linguistic and biological anthropologists.  Sociology is the study of human social behavior in a group.  Psychology is the study of human behavior in individual and small groups.
45. Mrs. Jones puts the following number on her white board:  673  She wants to explain the value of each number. Which explanation is correct?
The place value of the 6 is 10 times the value of the place of the 7. The place value of the 3 is one-tenth the place value of the 7.In our place-ten place value system, each place value is ten times the place value of the number to the right of it.  For example, 325 means 300 + 20 + 5 or (100*3) + (10*2) + (1*5).
46. A teacher using the QAR comprehension strategy is asking her students questions that require them to think and search.  They have just read a retelling of Little Red Riding Hood. Which of the following questions is a think and search question?
How long did it take for the Wolf to get to Granny's?This question would require the readers to think about what Red was doing (picking flowers and walking to Granny's) and how long it might take the Wolf to accomplish his foul deeds.  They would have to conclude that he was a pretty quick worker.  A QAR (Question-Answer Relationship, Raphael, 1982) helps students understand that much of what is gained from reading does not come directly from the text.  The teacher uses three types of questions: the right on the page, the think and search, and the on my own. The right on the page questions can be found directly from the text. The think and search questions can be directly inferred from the text.  The on my own questions are related to the students own experiences or ideas.  Students can learn to distinguish which type of question is being asked and also to construct questions at each level.  OARs can be used with fiction and non-fiction texts.  Students learn to make predictions, draw conclusions, make generalizations and evaluate texts.
47. A kindergarten teacher includes poetry in her daily read-alouds. She asks her students to chime in with the rhymes of familiar poems and sometimes to provide a new rhyming word, Which reading skill is she practicing with her class?
Phonemic awarenessPhonemic awareness closely correlates with reading success. Emergent readers must learn that language involves individual words which are made up of syllables and that syllables are composed of phonemes or sounds.  Phonemic awareness is an oral skill.  Children must learn to distinguish sounds, words and syllables to learn to read and write.  This teacher is using rhyming words to develop phonemic awareness.
48. The reading specialist is giving fluency probes to a first grade class. She tests Jamina who reads as below: (slashes mark stops.  Underlined words are missed.)Tom / has / a / kitten./  He really / likes / his / cat./ He pets his cat./ He/ feeds/ his/ cat./ He/ washes / his cat's / pillow.  How should the reading teacher assess Jamina's reading based on this test?
Jamina needs practice with decoding.Fluent readers read quickly, accurately, automatically, and with expression.  Fluency is important for good reading because slow, inaccurate reading causes the reader to lose focus.  When readers are just beginning, they must focus on decoding each word.  Fluent readers recognize high-frequency words automatically, do not need to stop to decode every word, heed punctuation marks, and read with adequate speed.  This reader is stopping often to decode.
49. Which is an incorrect statement about the basic components of the atom?
Protons and electrons are in the nucleus of an atom.An atom's protons and neutrons are located in its nucleus.  Electrons are in the outer portion of the atom. Atoms can split or join in an atomic reaction.  The periodic table is arranged by atomic number, the number of protons an atom possesses.
50. Mr. Colbert has his class write a story about a favorite trip they have taken.  After they write, he poses some questions to the class:Does your paper have a good beginning? Does your paper have a good ending? Does your paper give enough details to connect the beginning with the end? Are the sentences connected?Which type of writing scale is Mr. Colbert using with his class?
A form-based writing scaleWhen using a form-based writing scale, the teacher poses a question or questions which guide the writers so that they can analyze their own writing. Usually only one question would be posed at a time.  A rubric lists a set of standards that must be met. With either scoring system, the writer must conform to the prompt.
51. Which is an advantage of the mastery lecture in math?
Teachers can introduce a large amount of material in a short time.A teacher who is using the mastery lecture technique in math can introduce a large amount of material in a short time. For example, a teacher might introduce closed polygons by drawing several on the board and pointing out their characteristics.  In this way, she might introduce triangles, squares, trapezoids, etc. in one lesson.  Teachers should not use this method exclusively. Students need "hands-on" experiences.  Lectures should be short and open to student questions.
52. Tim is solving the following problem:Three monkeys are eating bananas.  If the first monkey eats five, the second eats two and the third eats three, how many bananas do they eat in all?Tim  solves the problem as follows:Monkey One       ///// Monkey Two       // Monkey Three    ///The monkeys eat 10 bananas in all. What method did Tim use to solve this problem?
SemiabstractThe most concrete method for teaching will involve using real objects.  The semiconcrete method uses visual representations or pictures.  The semiabstract method will use symbols, such as tally marks, to solve problems.  The abstract method uses symbols, operations and numerals to solve.
53. Mr. Amazon's second grade class is weighing objects in his classroom.  They are putting objects on a balance scale and then placing a pound weight or a kilogram weight on the other side.  The children weigh a potato.  If the potato is placed on one side of the scale and is lighter than the pound weight, what will the children discover when they weigh the same potato with the kilogram weight?
The potato will weigh less than a kilogram.A kilogram is equal to 2.2 pounds.  If the potato is lighter than a pound, it will be lighter than a kilogram.  Hands-on activities are a good way to experience measurement concepts.
54. Precise math terminology is important for students who will be taking standardized tests or other math classes. Which term is defined as a point on a coordinate plane?
An ordered pairAny point on a coordinate plane can be located with an ordered pair. A coordinate plane has four quadrants, upper and lower right and upper and lower left.  The coordinate plane is divided into these quadrants by a horizontal axis and a vertical axis.
55. Mrs. Sherwood reads "I Can't," Said the Ant" by P. Cameron and "Jake Baked the Cake" by B.G. Hennessey to her class along with similar type books. What skill is she helping her students hone with her read-alouds?
Phonemic awarenessRhyming books are often used to help students develop phonemic awareness, learn spelling patterns and identify word families.  Dr. Seuss has many good books with rhyme.  Students like the predictability of the books and enjoy chiming in.
56. Fifth grade students are having trouble knowing what to write in their reading response journals. Which of the following would not be an appropriate prompt to help them write about a story?
Who were the main characters in the story?Reading response journals are used to record the thoughts, feelings, and predictions of the reader. They are open-ended, personal, and free-flowing.  They are used to promote discussion.  Details from the story would be closed answers.
57. Which of the following projects would help social studies students understand how transportation and communications networks contribute to the level of economic development of a region?
Using the Internet, find out the availability of cartoon character cell phone covers, the cost, and taxes and shipping.  With this information, take a poll of your classmates to see how many might buy the covers. Then make a plan for ordering and selling the covers.The availability of transportation and shipping and the improvement in communication networks, such as the Internet, has an economic impact in a region.  The ability to do research easily and find information for planning for the use of resources helps regions develop at a greater pace than previous cultures could.  This project uses the Internet, an communication resource, to help plan a business based on supply and demand.  Economic principles support using resources to attain the highest practical satisfaction.
58. Mr. McConaghy puts the following words on his white board in his small reading group:sate     trow   undip   breetHe asks his students to read these words. What might his purpose be?
To practice decodingUsing nonsense words helps students decode.  Students learn to recognize phonetic and spelling patterns so that they can decode unfamiliar words.  This also helps them with writing.  Teachers can use Nonsense Word tests to assess decoding skills.
59. Which of the following would be least likely to build vocabulary?
Mr. Baker sends home vocabulary word lists with his spelling list the week before the class reads a selection about circuses.Vocabulary should be introduced in meaningful settings for good comprehension and retention. Vocabulary should be introduced in context. Reading books on topic is a good way to introduce new vocabulary.  Illustrations often help with comprehension of new word.  Introducing a theme in a wider context also helps build vocabulary.  Some words need direct introduction, especially if they are specific to a topic. Sending home word lists would be the least effective strategy for building vocabulary since the words are presented in isolation.
60. Your principal requires that you submit all lesson plans for review during your first year of teaching.  There are three new teachers on your team.  When the lesson plans are submitted, the principal notes that one teacher is not writing behavioral objectives.  Read the objective used for the lesson and comment on why it is not a behavioral objective and how it might be corrected.Given a right triangle, students will be able to understand how to find its area.
This objective is not written according the standards for a behavioral objective.  It should include the criteria under which the students will achieve the outcome wanted by the teacher. The behavior must be observable. "Will be able to understand" is not observable.  A method of assessment should also be stated.  This objective should be restated:  Students will be able to correctly calculate the area of right triangles using the formula for the area of a triangle (1/2bh) with a 90% accuracy.
61. Your first grade team purchases a weekly news magazine which you use with your students. Many teachers use weekly news magazines in their classrooms.  What might be a good reason to use news magazines in the reading classroom?
To build background knowledge Commercially produced news magazines for students are engaging and informing.  Much of the content concerns current events or world issues.  There are often maps and charts accompanying the articles.  Sometimes there is reference for further reading at the library or on the Internet.  Including a wide-range of reading materials in the classroom will broaden students reading choices and interest a greater number of students.
62. A question on the standardized tests for sixth grade students asks the students to identify the list that contains only integers. Which list would be the correct choice?
247, 3, 6, 9, 88, 100, 3,456It may be helpful to explain integers as counting numbers which stretch to the right and the left of zero on a number line and also include zero.  Rational numbers are numbers that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. These can be expressed as fractions, 3/4, decimals, 0.75 or percents 75%.
63. Mr. Micawber asks his third grade students to use craft sticks to build a shape that will contain a right angle.  Which shape would NOT fulfill this requirement?
An equilateral triangleA right angle measures 90°. A right triangle contains one right angle and two acute angles. In an equilateral angle, there are three acute angles. An acute angle measures less than 90°.  An obtuse angle measures more than 90°.   A square and a rectangle would have right angles.
64. A first grade reading teacher is working with students to break words into their component parts. Which skill is he practicing with his students?
A first grade reading teacher is working with students to break words into their component parts. Which skill is he practicing with his students?
65. A sixth grade class is converting fractions to decimals and decimals to percents. Which of the following is correct?
20% can be converted to a fraction by putting 20 over 100, 20/100, and then reducing to 1/5.A percent is converted to a decimal by shifting the decimal point over two places to the left and dropping the percent sign.  So 20% becomes 0.20.  A percent can be converted to a fraction by dropping the percent sign and putting the number over 100 and then reducing.  20/100 = 2/10 = 1/5.
67. Mr. Davidson takes a Teddy bear and places it on the carpet in his kindergarten class.  He places it face up and with its feet facing him.   He asks his students to describe the position of the bear. Then he places the bear on its face and turns the feet to the right.  He challenges his students to tell what has changed and then to tell him how to return the bear to its original position. What math concept is Mr. Davidson introducing to his class?
TransformationTurning, flipping and sliding a Teddy bear is a way to introduce a kindergarten class to transformations.  Later, they might use the terms rotatation, reflections and translations.  Scaling is drawing a figure in an enlarged or reduced form using an uniform scale.  A collection of plane shapes that fill a plane with no gaps or overlaps is a tessellation.  A tessellation of hexagons is seen in a honeycomb.  Translation is moving a shape from one place to another without changing scale.
68. Mrs. Anderson's class is conducting an experiment with melting lollipops. They put a lollipop in various places on the playground and watch to see which one melts first.  Will there the results of this experiment be reliable?
No, they cannot make accurate measurements.Reliable data is data that can be reproduced and is accurate. This experiment cannot be accurately controlled because the students cannot control the weather. They also have not set up any way to accurately measure their results.  A good experiment should be reproducible and accurate.
69. Mr. Wilson is planning a summative lesson on measurement in his second grade class.  He sets up stations at which the students will compute area, volume, or perimeter. At which station will the students find an area?
Station B:  The students use plastic squares to cover various envelope shapes. They then count the squares needed to cover each envelope.Stations A and D are measuring perimeter or the distance around an object. Station C is measuring volume or how much space is inside a three-dimensional container.  Station B is measuring the area inside a shape. This area is measured in squares.
70. Ms. Early is introducing vocabulary for her new reading selection.  She wants her students to understand the meanings of related words.  Which of the below might she choose to help her students with this concept?
benefit, beneficial, beneficiaryThese words share a common root and are related. Students need to develop an awareness of the common meanings words with common roots may share.  Here all of the terms refer to something good.  The share the root form bene.
71. The track coach asks his fifth grade cross-country team to make a choice. They can run 2 miles or 3 kilometers for practice this week.  Some chose the miles. Some chose the kilometers.  Who ran farther?
The milers ran slightly farther.This coach was crafty.  A mile is slightly more than 1.5 kilometers.  1.5 plus 1.5 equals 3 kilometers.  Two miles would be farther than this
72. Which of the following explained how prior knowledge helped readers by providing a shema or framework for thinking?
R.C. Anderson and P.D PearsonAnderson and Pearson introduced the schema theory of prior knowledge in their 1984, A schema -theoretic view of the basic processes in reading comprehension.  They posit that prior knowledge provides a framework for learning and comprehension.  Readers with good prior knowledge will assimilate new information readily.
73. Mr. Toney is testing his students on the processes of animal physiology.  Which of the following matches in incorrect?
Digestive system : lymph vesselsLymph vessels are part of the circulatory system.  The upper chambers of the heart are the atria.  Fission is the process in which a parent organism splits into two or more daughter organisms and loses its original identity.  The offspring are identical to the parent.  Peristalsis is the rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal system.
74. A sixth grade class has been studying types of energy.  Each student has been asked to draw a picture of a type of energy. Which student is not correct?
Teddy draws a roller coaster car speeding down a track and labels it nuclear energy.Energy is the ability of matter to move other matter or to produce a chemical reaction in other matter.  The energy of motion is kinetic energy.  A waterfall is a good example.  The storage of energy is potential energy.  A icicle holds potential energy.  The energy of moving molecules is heat energy.  A pot of boiling water has moving water particles.  Some machines, such as steam engines, are powered by heat energy.  The energy of moving electrons is electrical energy.  Nuclear energy occurs when an atom splits in two or when the nuclei of atoms fuse together.  This produces a great amount of energy which is used in nuclear power plants.  A speeding roller coaster car could use electrical energy in the form of electric current and mechanical energy which is produced by moving bodies.
75. Tammy has trouble solving subtraction problems with two-digit numbers.  Her teacher analyzes her errors and finds that Tammy has trouble with regrouping.  Which strategy would best help Tammy understand this process?
Give Tammy concrete aids and review the process of regrouping.Primary students often need extra process with concrete aids when adding or subtracting two-digit numbers. With the concrete aids, they can work through the process of regrouping and see what is actually happening between the two places.  Tammy might need to review place value  and adding two-digit numbers also.
76. One of the best practices for building reading fluency is repeated reading. Which of the following is not an example of repeated reading?
Timed readingEcho reading is reading one sentence at a time and having students repeat it as an echo would.  Choral reading is reading with the teacher in a group or having groups assigned to read together. This works well with poetry or dramas.  Reading with a tape recorded reading gives students practice with fluency.  Pre-recorded readings give good examples of prosody.  Timed reading is done to assess a student's fluency.
77. Alex, a student in your first grade class, has anger issues. At times, Alex retreats and will not respond. At other times, Alex has a full-blown temper tantrum, throwing of objects and screaming.  What could you do to help Alex in your classroom?
I would schedule a conference with Alex's parents and the guidance counselor to see if we can determine Alex's anger triggers.  We would work together on a plan to help Alex stay calm and which strategies might help Alex return to calm when agitated. We would also plan a monitoring and reporting system to help Alex meet the goals we set. We would also set up a plan for when Alex loses control.  This might mean calling the guidance counselor to remove Alex or separating Alex from the group.  I would praise Alex a lot when good behavior is shown or when temper is controlled.  This would be a long-term process with more meetings, adjusting of goals, and monitoring.