Nervous System

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monicak0007
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161864
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Nervous System
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2012-07-10 14:45:49
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Nervous System
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Nervous System vocabulary
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  1. arthr/o
    joint
  2. cerebell/o
    little brain
  3. cerebr/o
    largest part of the brain
  4. encephal/o
    entire brain 
  5. esthesi/o
    sensation
  6. gangli/o
    knot 
  7. gli/o
    glue
  8. gnos/o
    knowing
  9. hypn/o
    somn/i
    somn/o 
    sleep
  10. kinesi/o
    movement
  11. lex/o
    word or phrase 
  12. mening/o
    meningi/o 
    membrane
  13. narc/o
    sleep
  14. neur/o
    nerve 
  15. phas/o
    speech
  16. phor/o
    carry or bear 
  17. schiz/o
    split
  18. somat/o
    body
  19. spin/o
    spine
  20. stere/o
    3D or solid
  21. tax/o
    order or coordination
  22. thalam/o
    thalamus (a room)
  23. ton/o
    tone or tension
  24. top/o
    place
  25. cata-
    down
  26. -asthenia
    weakness
  27. -lepsy
    seizure
  28. -mania
    abnormal impulse toward 
  29. -paresis
    slight paralysis 
  30. -plegia
    paralysis
  31. central nervous system (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  32. brain
    portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium 
  33. cerebrum
    largest portion of the brain
  34. frontal lobe
    responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
  35. parietal lobe
    responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch 
  36. temporal lobe
    responsible for hearing, taste, and smell 
  37. occipital lobe
    responsible for vision
  38. cerebral cortex
    outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions 
  39. thalamus 
    two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
  40. gyri
    mounds of the cerebral hemispheres 
  41. sucli
    shallow grooves that separate gyri
  42. fissures
    deep grooves in the brain
  43. cerebellum
    responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles 
  44. brainstem
    responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature 
  45. ventricles 
    series of interconnected cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  46. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord 
  47. spinal cord
    responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
  48. meninges 
    three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord 
  49. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain and spinal cord 
  50. cranial nerves
    12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
  51. spinal nerves 
    31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord 
  52. sensory nerves
    nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain
  53. motor nerves
    nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to the muscles and glands 
  54. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands 
  55. hypothalamus 
    control center for the autonomic nervous system 
  56. sympathetic nervous system 
    concerned with preparing the body in stressful situations 
  57. parasympathetic nervous system
    it restores the body to a restful state after stressful experiences 
  58. aphasia 
    without speech
  59. dysarthria 
    speech impairments from incoordination of speech muscles 
  60. dysphasia 
    difficulty speaking 
  61. coma
    decreased consciousness
  62. delirium
    state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function
  63. dementia  
    impairment of intellectual function with memory loss, confusion
  64. motor deficit 
    loss or impairment of muscle function
  65. sensory deficit 
    loss or impairment of sensation
  66. neuralgia 
    pain along the course of a nerve
  67. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of motor control
  68. sciatica 
    pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by trauma of the nerve or its roots
  69. seizure
    sudden disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses 
  70. convulsion
    a type of seizure that causes a series of contractions of muscles 
  71. syncope
    fainting
  72. hyperesthesia 
    increased sensitivity to stimulation 
  73. paresthesia 
    abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without a cause
  74. agnosia 
    any types of loss of neurological function associated with interpretation of sensory information 
  75. astereognosis
    inability to judge the form of an object by touch
  76. atopognosis
    inability to locate a sensation 
  77. Alzheimer disease
    changes in the brain resulting in deterioration with forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of intellectual functions, total disability, and death 
  78. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control 
  79. cerebral palsy (CP)
    condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth 
  80. cerebrovascular disease
    disease resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
  81. cerebral arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries of the brain
  82. cerebral atherosclerosis
    condition of fat buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
  83. cerebral aneurysm
    dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
  84. cerebral thrombosis
    presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
  85. cerebral embolism
    obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain 
  86. cerebrovascular accident stroke (CVA)
    group of brain dysfunctions related to disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain
  87. transient ischemic attack (TI
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain 
  88. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  89. epilepsy
    disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures 
  90. tonic-clonic
    a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups 
  91. glioma
    tumor of glial cells 
  92. herniated disk
    fragmented intervertebral disk, causing compression on the nerve root 
  93. herpes zoster
    painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves
  94. Huntington disease (HD)
    hereditary disease of the central nervous system
  95. Huntington chorea
    bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia 
  96. hydrocephalus 
    hydrocephaly 
    abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain 
  97. meningioma
    benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
  98. meningitis 
    inflammation of the meninges
  99. migraine headache
    severe headaches accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, vomiting, lasting hours or days 
  100. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    disease in the body's immune system that eats away at the protective sheath that covers the nerves
  101. myasthenia gravis 
    an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to muscle weakness and fatiguability
  102. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  103. narcolepsy
    a sudden uncontrollable need to sleep
  104. Parkinson disease
    a decrease of dopamine for proper movement
  105. plegia
    paralysis
  106. poliomyelitis 
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord, resulting in spinal and muscle deformity
  107. polyneuritis 
    inflammation involving two or more nerves, due to nutritional deficiency 
  108. reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)
    abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in response to pain
  109. spina bifida
    defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches 
  110. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    record of electrical impulses of the brain identifying conditions that affect brain function 
  111. lumbar puncture (LP)
    putting a needle into the spine to get cerebrospinal fluid for testing 
  112. position emission tomography (PET)
    technique to produce images of brain to study diseases 
  113. radiography
    x-ray imaging 
  114. computed tomography (of the head)
    x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities within 
  115. myelogram
    x-ray of the spinal cord 
  116. reflex testing
    test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus 
  117. Babinski sign 
    pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot 
  118. transcranial sonogram 
    image to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels 
  119. craniectomy
    excision of part of the skull 
  120. craniotomy
    incision into the skull
  121. ]diskectomy
    removal of a herniated disk
  122. laminectomy
    excision of one or more layers of the vertebrae
  123. vertebral lamina
    flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
  124. neuroendovascular surgery 
    diagnosis and treatment of disorders within cerebral blood vessels 
  125. chemotherapy 
    treatment that destroys selected cells
  126. radiation therapy
    treatment using ionizing radiation to impede the life of malignant cells 
  127. stereotactic radiosurgery 
     radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions  by focusing radiation beams on them
  128. stereotactic frame
    device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
  129. thrombolytic therapy 
    dissolution of thrombi using drugs
  130. analgesic 
    agent that relives pain
  131. anticoagulant 
    drug that prevents clotting of the blood 
  132. anticonvulsant 
    agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
  133. hypnotic 
    agent that induces sleep 
  134. sedative 
    agent that calms
  135. flat affect
    dulled emotion
  136. apathy
    lack of interest
  137. catatonia
    state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment 
  138. delusion
    persistent belief that has no basis in reality
  139. dysphoria
    restless mood
  140. euphoria
    exaggerated feeling of well-being
  141. hallucination
    false perception of the senses for which there is no reality 
  142. ideation 
    formation of thoughts or ideas
  143. mania
    psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent
  144. psychosis
    mental condition characterized by distortion of reality 
  145. thought disorder
    thought that lacks clear processing 
  146. major depression
    major depressive illness
    clinical depression 
    disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, appetite and social behavior
  147. dysthymia
    milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression persisting for at least two years
  148. manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
    affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
  149. seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
    affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring 
  150. generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    most common anxiety disorder with uncontrollable worry about everyday problems 
  151. panic disorder (PD)
    disorder of sudden recurrent attacks of intense feelings 
  152. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the person with persistent thoughts and memories of it
  153. hypochondriasis
    preoccupation with thoughts of disease that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance 
  154. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions
  155. autism
    developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function 
  156. dyslexia
    disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words
  157. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    consistent distractions, and lack of control over impulses 
  158. mental retardation
    condition of subaverage intelligence 
  159. anorexia nervosa
    severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight that results in a refusal to eat
  160. bulimia nervsa
    eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by vomiting or excessive exercise 
  161. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions 
  162. light therapy
    use of illuminating light to treat seasonal affective disorder 
  163. psychotherapy
    treatment of psychiatric disorders sing verbal and nonverbal interaction
  164. behavioral therapy
    treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
  165. cognitive therapy
    treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking 
  166. psychotropic drugs
    treat mental illnesses 
  167. neuroleptic agents
    drugs used to treat psychosis

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