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2010-04-25 23:09:17

sac exam number 2
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  1. metamorphic rocks are
    • recrystilized due to the action of
    • 1. heat
    • 2. pressure
    • 3. fluids
  2. regional or dynamic metamorphic are
    large areas and are due to plate activity
  3. foliated metamorphic rocks
    • fine grained parent
    • ex) shale, basalt
  4. contact or thermal metamorphic
    "cooked" by contact with magma or lava
  5. hornfles
    • dark fined
    • grained rock
  6. index material
    form at certain pressure and temperatures
  7. catalina schist
    • a rock formation a continuous body of rock that formed in the same enviornment over a continious span of time
    • dose not all need to be the same rock type
    • large enough to be on a map
    • normally named after a near by town
    • ex) capostrano formation
  8. geologic time
    • archbishiop usher
    • oct. 26 (earths birthday)
  9. uniformataiainsim
    the natural process we see today could produce everything we see in the geologic record, but it would take a very long time
  10. principles of relative dating
    • A) principle of superpostion
    • B) principle of inclusion
    • include fragments of rock must be older than the rock that contains them
    • "chocolate chip"
    • C) Principle of original horizontality
    • sedimentary layers start out flat, of they are folded or tilted then that folding or tilting happened later
    • D) principle of cross cutting realation
    • younger features cut older features
  11. unconformity
    (surface of erosion)
    • A) disconformity
    • B) angular unconformity
    • C) non comformity
  12. geologic time scale
    based on fossils and supper positions
  13. 3 eras
    • CENOZIC ERA "modern life"
    • quaternay
    • tertiary
    • MESOZOIC ERA "middle life"
    • cretaceous
    • jurassic
    • triassic
    • PALEOZIC ERA "ancient life"
    • permain, pennsyivanian, mississppian, devonian, silvian, ordovicia, cambrian
    • Pre cambrian time
  14. absolute dating
    you can place a number of years on an event
  15. half life
    the aniount of time 1/2 the atoms of parent isotope in a sample decay
  16. Eon eras
    • PHEROZOIC EON "apparent life"
    • cenozic
    • mesozoic
    • paleozoic
    • PROTEROZOIC EON "first multicellular life"
    • HADEAN TIME "hellish"
  17. mass wasting
    • the movement of earth materials due to gravity
    • rock slide
    • mud flow
  18. 4 types of movement
    • 1)FALL: material dose not stay in contact with earths surface
    • ex) steep slope "cliff"
    • 2)SLIDE: material stays in contact with earth and moves ad one units internal structures are preserved
    • 3)FLOW: material moves like a liquid internal structures are not preserved
    • ex) avalanche
    • 4)CREEP: very slow movement due to expansion and contraction
  19. angle of the slope
    • REPOSE: steepest angle that will remain stable in particular material
    • RELIEF: total height of the slope higher is less stable
    • WATER: destaibilites b adding weight and subrication surface by pushing grains apart
    • VEGITATIAN: roots hold material
  20. desta bilize
    add weight to the top of a slope or remove material from base
  21. stabilize
    remove material from the top or add to the base of the slope
  22. sediment load
    the amount of sediment transported by river
  23. bed load
    coarse/sediment that moves along the river bed by rolling, sliding or saltationo
  24. suspended load
    fine grained material held in the water comin by turbulence
  25. bed load and suspended load
    depend on energy in the water
  26. dissolved load
    • material carried as ions in a solution
    • velocity increases=errosion
    • velocity decreses=deposition
  27. discharge
    amount of water flowing down river
  28. simuosity
    curveness of a river
  29. braided steam
    • multiple channel that split and recombine
    • steeper gradient
    • higher velocity
    • higher sediment
    • lower discharge
  30. meandering stream
    • single channel that winds back and forth over a flat areac called a FLOOD PLANS
    • flatter gradient
    • lower velocity
    • lower sediment load
    • higher discharge
    • YOUNG STREAM: immature landscape
    • steep v shaped valley, steeper gradient and higher velocity, low sinuosity
    • OLDER STREAM: mature landscape
    • wide flood plain, flatter gradient and lower velocity, higher sinuosity
    • inside meanders, meandering shape but steep valley and steep gradient
  32. anticeedant stream
    river was there befor the mountains where uplif
  33. delta
    • when a river meets the ocean or a like
    • velocity will slow and sediment will be deposited
  34. allvvial fan
    dry delta from an ephmeral desert stream
  35. porosity %
    volume of open pore space/ total volume of rock
  36. permiablility
    • rate that water can flow through a rock
    • depends on the amount of connected pore space
  37. aquifer
    rock with high porosity and permiability
  38. aquitard
    rock with low porosiy and perablility
  39. aquuiclude
    rock with no/low porosity and permiability
  40. flowing artesian well
    water rises out of the surface without being pumped
  41. non flowing artesian well
    water rises out of aquifier but not to the surface
  42. glaciers
    whenever the accumilation of snow greater then the melting
  43. glaciers confined within a valley in a mountain range landscape carved by rivers
    • v shaped
    • gentle rounded topography
    • tributeries can cut down to same level as main stream
  44. landscape covered by glaciers
    • u shaped valley with steeper walls and a wider valley floor
    • sharp, angular topography
    • main glaciers can cut down much deeper that tributaries leaves a hanging vally behind
  45. areta
    sharp ridge between glaciers
  46. horn
    • sharp glarized mountain peal
    • ex)matahorn
  47. cirque
    a bowl shaped depression at the head of the glacier
  48. tarn
    lake with a cirque
  49. till
    • immature glacial sediment
    • very angular
    • unsorted
  50. glacial erratics
    large boulders randomly left by glaciers
  51. moraine
    a accumulumatio of till
  52. estuary
    valley flooded by rising sea level
  53. fjord
    glacial u shaped esturay
  54. ccontintatal glaciers of ice sheets
    • cover large areas, flows away from an area of high snow fal, can be more then 3 miles thick
    • 3 in world today
    • greenland
    • east antartic
    • west antartic
  55. drumlins
    tear srop shaped hills made of till
  56. esker
    ridge made sediment deposted by sterein floring within or on top of a glacier
  57. kenel
    depression left when sediment was depesived a stranded black of ice usually forms a pond or lake
  58. striarions
    grooves cut into rocks that tell us directions that glacier was moving
  59. deserts
    • lower pressure= coler
    • higher pressure= wammer
  60. arroyo
    • steep walled canyon
    • caprock= resistant to erosion, sandstone, and basalt

    • PLATEAU: large area
    • MESA: wider than tall
    • BUTTE: taller than wider
  61. alluvial fan
    "dry delta" whena cone of sediemt builds out into a dry desert basin
  62. bajada
    surface formed by merging alluvial fans on the lower part of the slope
  63. pediment
    erosional surface cut into bedrock
  64. playa
    a temporary desert lake
  65. evaplities
    rock salt
  66. windblown stand moves by ---------- and formes ----------
    • saltation
    • dunes
  67. inside of dune are old slip face
    large scale cross bedding
  68. barchan dune
    sand supply is limited
  69. transverse dunes
    • plenty of sand and steady wind direction
    • giant ripples
  70. erg
    • "sand sea"
    • large area cover by sand
  71. longitudinal dunes or self
    abundant sand variable winds
  72. vadose ZONe
    above the water table
  73. greatest annual property loss in unites states
    creep and expansive soil
  74. saltation
    rock grains that move along the bed of a stream in a jumping motion
  75. a perfectly straight river would have a sinuosity of
  76. index mineral
    mineral that forms out of restricted tempature and pressure
  77. blue schist
    the metamorphic facies characteristic of subduction zone