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- the study of dialects
- Differences that occur across geographic space
- social dialects are growing and expanding
- intersect with culture
- a different way of speaking based on the group they think they belong to
- African American English: more people speak this now than ever before
- traditional notion of “dialect”
- Accent vs Dialect
- accent: about pronunciation-not a linguistic term-a part of dialecto
- dialect: more pervasive-differences in pronunciation-differences in lexicon and grammar
- Started in Europe
- 1925 started in the U.S.
- interstates represent older migration patterns and the dialect divisions follow them.
- Why are there so many dialects on the east side and as you move west the dialect areas are so much greater?
- east are new arrivals and defined by where they come from.
- As they move west they intermingle and mix and take on aspects of each other’s dialects.
Dialect Variation: Geographical
- Lexicon (words): pop (Northern IL) ~ soda (Mid and Southern IL)·
- Phonology: caught ~ cot are said differently in the North·
- Grammar: standing on line ~ standing in line
- a line that divides ONE linguistic feature form another·
- ex- paper bag north of the line and paper sack south of the line
- a bundle of isoglosses
- found many differences and drew many lines that are “basically” in the same area
- less geographically distinct as time is passing
- not interested in what people really say but what people think they say
- rate on who uses the most correct English
- Northern states believe they speak correctly (Michigan feels they speak the most correct)
- In the south they believe Northern states speak correctly because they’ve been taught they don’t speak right.
- Dennis Preston is a researcher
- When asking people to fill these maps out you are learning ideology not linguistic
Northern Cities Vowel Shift
a person who participates in the northern cities vowel shift is more likely to have a liberal political philosophy
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