aerobic met and hormones
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Where does Glycolysis occur:
-takes place in cytoplasm
Composition of Pyruvate:
3 carbon molecules
Pyruvate gets either broken down to _________ or to remake _______
What needs to be available to break down pyruvate?
When pyruvate is broken down what is released?
- high energy electrons
What happens in the citric acid cycle?
Acetyl CoA enters the cycle where more CO2 and high energy electrons are released
What is the final step of aerobic metabolism?
-the energy in the high energy electrons previously released is transferred to ATP and the electrons are combined with oxygen and hydrogen to form water
Bottom line: what are the end products of aerobic metabolism?
What is glycogen?
CHO energy stroed in liver and muscles
Amount of glycogen stored in adult muscles? In the liver?
What is glycogenesis?
process of convertin glucose to glycogen
How can one increase glycogen levels?
- -physical training
- -dietary manipulations (although limited energy source)
Is the conversionof glucose to fat reversible?
Where does cho digestion occur?
Begins in the mouth and ends in the small intesting
What do intestinal enzymes and pancreatic amylase do?
complete the conversion of carbs to monosaccharides
What is Lactase?
the enzyme that breaks down lactose
What is sucrase?
the enzyme that breaks down sucrose
what is maltase?
the enzyme that breaks down maltose
What is the primary aspect (goal) of carb metabolism?
maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis (70-100 mg/dL -fasting)
What are two blood glucose sources?
What is glycogenolysis:
process of converting glycogen stored in the liver and muscle back to glucose
What is Gluconeogenesis?
process of producing glucose from fat and protein.
What is the result of gluconeogenesis that can result in an acid-base imbalance
formation of ketones
Where does insulin come from?
beta cells in pancreas
What are the functions of insulin? (there are 6)
- 1. eases glucose into body cells
- 2. enhances glycogenesis
- 3. stimulates lipogenesis
- 4. inhibits breakdown of fat and protein
- 5. Promotes amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle (increasing protein synthesis)
- 6. Influences glucose oxidation
- pancreas: alpha cells
- raises blood glucose by:
- stimulates conversion of liver glycogen to glucose
- stimulates breakdown of lipids for energy
- released from pancreas and hypothalamus
- inhibits glucose and glucagon
- raises blood glucose by:
- enhancing the conversion of liver glycogen to glucose
- promote gluconeogenesis
- inhibits insulin
- increases insulin breakdown
- increases glucose absorption
- causes release of epinephrine
What is the glycemic index?
- Measure of the effect of a carb containing food on blood glucose level
- Ranking of how much the food raises glucose levels
What does 100 represent in regard to glycemic index?
The highest value possible; food raises blood glucose level the most
What does a number less than 50 represent with regard to glycemic index?
a low value -- the lower glycemic index the better
What are factors that affect glycemic index?
- 1. physical form such as apple juice as compared with whole apple
- 2. fat and protein content in addition to carbs, which slows digestion
- 3. ripeness such as in fruites and vegetables, which increases glycemic index
- 4. Fiber content, slows digestion
- 5. Botanic variety of a food
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