Torts

Card Set Information

Author:
BlasterGirl
ID:
161959
Filename:
Torts
Updated:
2012-07-10 21:43:41
Tags:
INTENTIONAL TORTS
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Description:
Prima Facie Case, Battery, Assault, FI, IIED
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  1. TORTS APPROACH:
    (1) Determine which torts are being tested.
         - Intentional Torts
         - Harm to Economic & Dignitary Interests
         - Negligence
         -  Strict Liability
         - Nuisance 
    (2) Determine Bar Exam Testing Area
         - Tort Liability (Is D liable to P?) [90%]
         - General Considerations (Vicarious liab, >1Ds) [10%]
    • TORTS APPROACH:
    • (1) Determine which torts are being tested.
    • (2) Determine Bar Exam Testing Area:     
    •      Tort Liability
    •      1 - Can P estbalish a prima facie case?
    •         - If Yes, the continue analysis
    •         - If No, then STOP. P loses
    •      2 - Can D estbalish any affirmative defenses?
    •         - If No, D loses.
    •         - If yes, D wins.

    •      General Considerations
    •       1 - Do any general considerations apply to the facts?
    •       Note: Applies to all cases, regardless of tort invovled.
  2. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS
    Prima Facie Case:
    (1) Act
    (2) Intent
    (3) Causation
    • ACT:
    • Any volitional movement by D.

    • INTENT:
    • 1 - Substantial Certainty: intent exists if D knows with substantial certainty that certain consequences will result.
    • 2 - Incapacitated D: Everyone is liable for intentional torts. NO EXCEPTIONS. Wrong answer choice = D lacked capacity to have intent.
    • 3 - Transferred Intent: Intent can be transferred from (i) person to person and (ii) tort to tort. Applies to: battery, assault, FI, trespass to land, trespass to chattel.

    • CAUSATION:
    • Exists if D's conduct was a substantial factor in bringing about the result.

    • Remember: Treat P as average person. P's supersensititives DO NOT MATTER UNLESS D knew of them.
    • Remember: If dealing with intentional tort, ELIMINATE answers with negligence language (reasonable care)!
  3. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PERSON
         (1) Battery
         (2) Assault
         (3) False Imprisonment
         (4) IIED
    • BATTERY:
    • Act:
    • (1) Harmful or Offensive Contact,
    • (2) With P's person 
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result. 
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result

    • Harmful/Offensive: Any unpermitted contact. Harm does not have to result. Super-sensitivities are IRRELEVANT.
    • P's person: Anything connected to P's person (car, plate, purse).
  4. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PERSON
         (1) Battery
         (2) Assault
         (3) False Imprisonment
         (4) IIED
    • ASSAULT:
    • Act:
    • (1) apprehension (understanding of)
    • (2) of an immediate battery (an unpermitted touching)
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result.
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result

    • Apprehension: Apprehend = understand. Must apprehend that an unpermitted touching could have occurred. 
    • Must be resonable. Reasonable person standard UNLESS D knew of P's super-sensitivity.
    • Immediate Battery: (1) Harmful or Offensive Contact,(2) With P's person could have occurred.

    If assault fails, consider IEED.
  5. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PERSON
         (1) Battery
         (2) Assault
         (3) False Imprisonment
         (4) IIED
    • FALSE IMPRISONMENT:
    • Act:
    • (1) Sufficient Act of Restraint
    • (2) to a Bounded Area
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result.
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result.

    • Sufficient Act of Restraint:
    • Threats are enough. Do not need actual force.
    • Inaction is enough IF understanding D would take action.
    • Time Period: Even very short time (30 sec) is sufficient.
    • Knowledge: P must know of confinement UNLESS actual injury results from confinement.

    Shoplifting: (i) reasonable belief as to theft, (ii) reasonable manner of detention, (iii) detention for a reasonable period of time. 

    • Bounded Area:
    • P's freedom of movement in all directions is limited.
    • Not Bounded Area:
    • (i) reasonable means of escape, AND
    • (ii) P knows of it.

    If FI fails, consider IIED.
  6. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PERSON
         (1) Battery
         (2) Assault
         (3) False Imprisonment
         (4) IIED
    • IIED:
    • Act:
    • (1) Outrageous Conduct, and
    • (2) Damages
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result.
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result.

    • Outrageous Conduct:
    • Conduct must be extreme. Factors: (i) is conduct continuous? (ii) Type of P? Eldery, young child, super-sensitive P that D knows about. (iii) Type of D? Common carrier, innkeeper. 

    Damage: Physical Injury NOT Required. Substantial Emotional Distress IS Required. 

    *IIED IS THE FALL BACK TORT. IF FAIL TO ESTBALISH ANOTHER INTENTIONAL TORT, ANALYZE IIED*
  7. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PROPERTY
         (1) Trespass to Land
         (2) Trespass to Chattel
         (3) Conversion 
    • TRESPASS TO LAND:
    • Act:
    • (1) Physical invasion by D
    • (2) of P's land
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result.
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result.

    • Physical Invasion: D need not personally go onto land. Any physical object in D's control sufficies (throw rock, push person).
    • P's land: Surface and reasonable distance going up and down. Reasonable airspace and sub-surface.

    (Note: If not physical object, consider nuisance)
  8. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PROPERTY     
         (1) Trespass to Land     
         (2) Trespass to Chattel 
         (3) Conversion 
    • TRESPASS TO CHATTEL:
    • Act:
    • (1) Interference by D with P's right of possession
    • (2) Damages
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result.
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result.

    • Interference: Damage of chattel or dispossession.
    • Damages: Actual Damages are required either to the chattel itself or damage to the right of possession. Value of loss of use.

    • Distinguish: From conversion, which is a more serious dispossession.
    • Awarded: Damages (cost of repair) [as opposed to FMV]
  9. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: TO PROPERTY          
         (1) Trespass to Land          
         (2) Trespass to Chattel      
         (3) Conversion 
    • CONVERSION:
    • Act:
    • (1) An intentional act by D 
    • (2) that causes destruction of or a serious interference with
    • (3) P's chattel 
    • Intent:
    • Substantial certainty certain consequences will result. (Mistake is no defense. D liable even if did not intend or recognize legal significance of his act). 
    • Causation:
    • Substantial factor in bringing about result.

    • Destruction or Serious Interference:
    • D's exercise of dominion and control over chattel.

    • Distinguish: From trespass to chattel, which is a less serious dispossession. The longer the time of dispossession and the greater the use of chattel by D, the more likely it is conversion.
    • Awarded: FMV of chattel.
  10. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: DEFENSES
         (1) Consent
         (2) Privileges
         (3) Self Defense
         (4) Defense of Others
         (5) Defense of Property
         (6) Necessity 
    • CONSENT:
    • (1) Did P have capacity to consent? 
    • (2) Was consent express or implied?
    • (3) Did D stay within bounds of consent?

    • Capacity: If no capacity to consent, consent invalid.
    • Express: Words were used. Look for mistake, fraud, coercion as they can undo express consent. 
    • Implied: Custom/Usage and/or P's conduct, or
    • Implied by Law: emergencies.
  11. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: DEFENSES
       (1) Consent
       (2) Defense Privileges
       (3) Self Defense
       (4) Defense of Others
       (5) Defense of Property
       (6) Necessity
    • DEFENSE PRIVILEGES:
    • (1) Timing Requirement (is the privilege available?)
    • (2) Reasonableness (is mistake a defense?)
    • (3) Proper amount of force used?
  12. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: DEFENSES
       (1) Consent
       (2) Defense Privileges
       (3) Self Defense
       (4) Defense of Others
       (5) Defense of Property
       (6) Necessity
    1 - Timing, 2 - Resonableness, 3 - Proper Force

    • SELF DEFENSE:
    • When a person resonably believes he is being or is about to be attacked, he may use such force as is reasonably n ecessary to protect against injury. 
  13. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: DEFENSES
       (1) Consent
       (2) Defense Privileges
       (3) Self Defense
       (4) Defense of Others
       (5) Defense of Property
       (6) Necessity
  14. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: DEFENSES
       (1) Consent
       (2) Defense Privileges
       (3) Self Defense
       (4) Defense of Others
       (5) Defense of Property
       (6) Necessity
  15. I.     INTENTIONAL TORTS: DEFENSES
       (1) Consent
       (2) Defense Privileges
       (3) Self Defense
       (4) Defense of Others
       (5) Defense of Property
       (6) Necessity

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