Chapter 3

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Chapter 3
2012-07-11 20:07:37

Chapter 3
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  1. 4 characteristics of life
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Responsiveness
    • Metabolism
  2. Charateristics of Prokaryotes
       internal structures
    • Lack nucleus
    • lack various internal structures ie any bound with phospholipid layer)
    • are small 1 um in diameter
    • have simple structure
    • bacteria and archaea
  3. prokaryotic cells
    Structures that can be found (8)
    • ribosome
    • cytoplasm
    • nucleoid
    • glycocalyx
    • cell wall
    • cytoplasmic membrane
    • flagellum
    • inclusions     
  4. Eukaryotic Cells
    • Nucleus
    • membrane bound organelles
    • larger 10-100um in diameter
    • have more complex structure   
    • Algea, Protozoa, Animals and Plants  
  5. Eukaryotic Cells
      Structures  (14)
    • Nucleolus
    • Nuclear envelope
    • nuclear pore 
    • ribosome
    • smoothe and rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • transport vesicles
    • golgi apparatus (packages protiens)
    • secretory vesicles
    • mitochondria
    • lysosome
    • centriole
    • cytoplasmic membrane
    • cytoskeleton        
  6. Approximate sizes of
         Parasitic Protozoa 
    • Virus: 0.3 um
    • bacterium 1 um
    • parasitic Protozoa 14um  
  7. Bacterial Cells
       External structures: Glycocalyces 
       description, composition 
    • Gelatinous, sticky substance that surrounds the outside of the cell
    • composed of polysaccarides, polypeptides or both.
    • (sugars or amino acids bound by protiens)  
  8. Glycocalyces
     two types
    • Capsule
    • Slime layer
  9. Glycocalyx: capsule
    description and function
    • firmly attached to cell surface
    • prevent H2O loss,
    • prevent bacteria from being recognized by the host
  10. Glycocalyx: Slime Layer
       description and function
    • loosly attached to cell surgace
    • water soluble
    • sticky layer that allows prokaryotes to attach
    • prevent water loss   
  11. Bacterial Cells: External Structures
    Flagella structure
    •  Filament, hook, basal body
    • Basal body anchors filament and hook to cell wall by a rod and a series of either 2 or 4 rings of integral protiens 
  12. Prokaryotic Cells: flagella structures
    gram+ vs. gram- 
    • gram + have two protien rings and a thicker cell wall
    • gram negative have 4 protien rings with a thinner cell wall but two membranes 
  13. What causes the flagella to move?
    ATP is supplied to the basal body, it begins to rotate, causing the filament to spin.
  14. Basic Arrangements of Bacterial Flagella
    arrangement and number 
    • Peritrichous: flagella surrounds cell
    • Polar Monotrichous: 1 flagellum at 1 end
    • Amphitrichous: 1 at each end
    • Lophotrichous: a bunch at one end
  15. Spirchetes: special spiral flagella
    • 3 axial filament filled with endoflagella surround cell and contract to cause spiral movement
    • example: syphilis 
  16. Flagella: Run vs. Tumble
    Run: moves cell forward, positive taxis, flagella move counter clockwise

    Tumble: moves cell backward/changes directon, negative taxis, flagella move clockwise
  17. External Structures: Bacteria
    Fimbriae form and function
    • short rod-like projections
    • sticky
    • used to adhere to one another, hosts, substances in the environment
    • important in biofilms
  18. External Structures: Prokaryotic cells
    • Tubules composed of pilin
    • known as conjunction pili
    • typically one or two per cell
    • Mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (conjugation)   
  19. Biofilms: composition and function
    • composed of slime layer or capsules and fimbriae
    • communities of many different species of bacteria livig together
    • common in nature
    • contribute to humand disease
    • ex: plaque build-up    
  20. Bacterial Cell Walls: form and function
    • Composed of peptidoglycan (NAG & NAM)
    • gives cell shape
    • can assist in attaching to other cells
    • can assist in resisting antimicrobial drugs
    • can be targeted with anitbiotics
  21. Peptidoglycan
    • sugar cell wall for bacteria
    • composed of NAG and NAM
  22. Bacterial Cell Walls: gram +
    • very thick layer of peptidoglycan
    • single layer cell membrane 
    • contains teichoic acids
    • purple gram stain
    • up to 60% mycolic acid in acid-fast bacteria helps cells survive descination
    • 90% peptidoglycan, 10% lipid
  23. Teichoic Acids
    unique polyalcohols found in gram+ bacterial cell walls
  24. Procaryotic Cell walls: Gram -
    • Have only a thin layer of peptidoglycan but a double cell membrane
    • composed of 90% lipid and 10% peptidoglycan
    • outer membrane contains protiens, phospholipids and lippopolysaccharides (LPS)-lipid A causes sudden death if introduced to antibiotics
    • Pink or Red gram stain
  25. Fluid Mosaic Model of cytoplasmic membrane
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • hydrophilic phosphate heads and hydrophobic lipid tails 
  26. Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes
    • Energy storage
    • harvest light energy in photosynthetic bacteria
    • selectively permiable
    • naturally inpermiable to most substances
    • Protien channels
    • Maintain electrical and concentration gradient     
  27. Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes
    pasive processes
    • diffusion
    • facilitated diffusion (movement with help of pore or channel)
    • osmosis

    Do not require ATP 
  28. Solution
    • solute + solvent
    • H2O is universal solvent 
  29. Osmosis
    • water moves down concentration gradient.
    • Hypotonic solution: water moves into cell. lysis
    • Hypertonic solution: water moved out of cell. crenate
    • isotonic: dynamic equilibrium   
  30. Active Transport
    • Moving up the gradient
    • requires ATP 
  31. Group Translocation
    Substances is chemically modified during transport
  32. Protoblast
    when a G+ cell looses its cell wall
  33. Spheroblast
    when a G- cell looses its cell wall.
  34. Types of Active Transport 3
    • Uniport: 1 directional
    • Antiport: bidirectional
    • Coupled symport: transport pairs of molecules
  35. Components of Bacterial Cytoplasm 3
    • Cytosol: liquid portion of cytoplasm
    • Inclusions: bodies, reserve deposits of chemicals
    • Endospores: Unique structures in some bacteria. a defense against unfavorable conditions 
  36. Formation of an Endospore
    •  DNA is replicated
    • surrounded by a first and then a second membrane
    • calcium cortex deposits between membranes
    • spore coat forms and matures
    • endospore is released from original cell and will regrow when a more favorable environment is present.   
  37. Bacterial Cytoplasm: nonmembranous organelles

  38. Archaea: External Structures
    • Glycocalyces 
    • Flagella
    • Fimbriae and Hami
  39. Archaea: Cell walls and Membranes
    • Most have cell walls
    • Do not have peptidoglycan
    • All have cytoplasmic membranes  
  40. Archaea: Cytoplasm similarities to bacteria
    • Have 70S ribosomes
    • fibrous cytoskeleton
    • circular DNA  
  41. Archaea: Cytoplasm differences to bacteria 
    • different ribosomal protiens
    • different metabolic enzymes to make RNA
    • Genetic code more similiar to eukaryotes  
  42. Eukaryotes: external structures
    Glycocalyces. (never a capsule) 
  43. Eukaryotes: Cell Wall
    composition for different kingdoms
    • Fungi, algea, plants and some protozoa have cell walls
    • Plant: cellulose
    • Fungi: cellulose, chitin, glucomannan
    • Algea: polysaccharides
  44. Eukaryotic Cytoplasmic membranes
    • control movement in and out of cell
    • fluid mosaic
    • membrane rafts: regions of lipids and protiens
    •    steroid lipids maintain fluidity
  45. Eukaryotic cells
    What is a pseudopodium used for?
  46. Define phagocytosis
    endocytosis of a solid
  47. Define pinocytosis
    endocytosis of a liquid
  48. List the differences of a Eukaryotic flagella vs. a prokaryotic flagella
    • it is within the cytoplasmic membrane
    • shaft composed of tubulin aranged to form micro tubules
    • filaments anchored to cell by basal body (no hook)
    • do not rotate, undulate
  49. describe the structure of a Eukaryotic flagella
    • 9 triplets + 2 central tubules in cytoplasmic membrane
    • 9 + 0 in basal body
  50. 2 functions of Cilia (Eukaryotic cells)
    • propels cell through it's environment
    • moves substances past cell's surface
  51. List Nonmembraneous organelles of Eukaryotic cells 5
    • flagella
    • cilia
    • ribosomes
    • cytoskeleton
    • centrioles and centrosome
  52. List Membraneous Organelles (eukaryotic) 9
    • nucleous
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • golgi body
    • lysosomes, peroxisomes, vacuoles, vesicles
    • Mitochondria
    • chloroplasts
  53. Ribosome, euk. give size
    • 80S
    • composed of 60S and 40S
  54. Cytoskeleton euk. Form and Function
    Network of tubulin fibers: microtubules, actin microfilament, intermediate filaments

    • anchors organcelles
    • produces cell shape
    • allosw contraction for endocytosis
  55. Centrioles euk. function and form
    • mitosis (nuclear division)
    • cytokinesis (cell division)
    • formation of flagella and cilia
    • 9+0 sets of triplets
  56. Centrosome definition
    • two centrioles alligned at a 90 degree angle
    • region of cytoplasm where centrioles are found (near nucleus)
  57. Describe the euk. Nucleus form
    • usually largest organelle in cell
    • houses Dna
    • nucleoplasm which contain chromatin
    • nucleoli
    • nuclear envelope
    • nuclear pores
  58. where is chromatin found?
  59. function of nucleoli
    synthesize RNA
  60. what is connected to the nuclear envelope?
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  61. purpose of nuclear pores?
    to release RNA, which are messengers for the cell
  62. name function of the endoplasmic reticulum
    • transport system
    • smooth: lipid transport
    • rough: protien transport
    • sends stuff to golgi body
  63. Golgi Body function
    • recieves, processes and packages molecules
    • packeges molecules in secretory vesicles
  64. Lysosome function
    • digest food.
    • lyse cell when opened
  65. peroxisome function
    • degrade poisonous wastes (free radicals)
    • prominent in kidney and liver
  66. Vacules and vesicles function
    • in plants and algea
    • transport, transfer and store nutrients and chemicals
    • vacules can be huge and store water
  67. Mitochondria form and functon
    • kidney bean shaped with crista inside for increased S.A.
    • creates ATP
    • contains 70S ribosome and circular DNA
  68. Chloroplasts form and function
    • light harvesting
    • has two phospholipid bilayers, 70S ribosomes and DNA
    • Granum: stacked for increased SA
  69. Explaine Endosymbiotic theory
    Mitochondria and Chloroplasts originate from prokaryotic cells, this explains their 70S ribosomes and their own DNA.  They were paracytic in nature joining the anerobic prokaryotic cell.  The anerobic cell grew dependent on their aerobic respiraton ATP. Poof! a Eukaryotic cell is born and the angels sang!