Exam 3: Heart and Great Vessels Part 2

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brau2308
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161970
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Exam 3: Heart and Great Vessels Part 2
Updated:
2012-07-11 14:32:13
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anatomy heart
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review of 7/11 lecture on the heart and great vessels for exam 3
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  1. Where does the right atrium receive blood from?
    • superior vena cavae
    • inferior vena cavae
  2. What internal features are found in the right atrium?
    • crista terminalis
    • valve of inferior vena cava
    • orifice of coronary sinus
    • fossa ovalis  
  3. Is the valve of inferior vena cava a functional structure?
    no
  4. What is the fossa ovalis?
    remnant from a whole in the heart during fetal development
  5. What type of surface does the internal part of the left atrium have?
    smooth
  6. Where does the left atrium receive blood from?
    pulmonary veins
  7. What are the internal features of the left atrium?
    orifices of pulmonary veins (usually 4 in number)
  8. Which ventricle has lower pressure?
    right ventricle
  9. What is the shape of the right ventricle?
    triangular
  10. What is the shape of the left ventricle?
    conical
  11. Does the right ventricle have trabeculae carneae?
    yes
  12. Does the left ventricle have trabeculae carneae?
    yes
  13. What is the function of papillary muscles?
    • contract at same time as ventricles
    • prevents valves from opening (backward) during ventricle contraction
    • maintains competency of valves  
  14. How many papillary muscles does the right ventricle have?
    3 (ant, post, septal)
  15. How many papillary muscles does the left ventricle have?
    2 (ant, post)
  16. What is another name for septomarginal band?
    moderator band
  17. Does the right ventricle have a septomarginal band?
    in 57% of population
  18. Does the left ventricle have a septomarginal band?
    no
  19. Does the right ventricle have a conus arteriosus?
    yes
  20. What is the conus arteriosus?
    smooth area in right ventricle
  21. Does the left ventricle have a conus arteriosus?
    no
  22. Which ventricle has the aortic semilunar valve?
    left ventricle
  23. Does the right ventricle have an aortic vestibule?
    no
  24. Where is the pulmonary valve?
    in right ventricle
  25. Does the left ventricle have an aortic vestibule?
    yes
  26. Which ventricle has the tricuspid valve?
    right ventricle
  27. Which ventricle has the bicuspid (mitral) valve?
    left ventricle
  28. Which ventricle has chordae tendineae?
    both right and left
  29. Why is the left ventricle larger (more muscular) than the right ventricle?
    left ventricle has to pump blood to entire body, not just to the lungs like the right ventricle
  30. What is the cardiac skeleton?
    • fibrous framework
    • maintains competency of valves
  31. What makes up the cardiac skeleton?
    • semilunar valves
    • annulus fibrosis
    • right fibrous trigone
    • left fibrous trigone   
  32. What connects the semilunar valves?
    conus tendon
  33. Where is the annulus fibrosis?
    surrounds base of tricuspid and bicuspid valves
  34. What is the annulus fibrosis?
    provides attachment point for muscles in ventricle
  35. Where is the right fibrous trigone?
    • between aortic, bicuspid and tricuspid valves
    • connects two annulus fibrosis 
  36. Where is the left fibrous trigone?
    between aortic and bicuspid valves
  37. How many layers of myocardium is there?
    3
  38. All 3 muscle layers of the heart are attached to what?
    cardiac skeleton
  39. The superficial layer of the myocardium is continuous with what?
    deep layer
  40. The superficial and deep layer of myocardium are arranged in what type of configuration?
    figure 8
  41. The middle layer of myocardium is arranged in what type of configuration?
    circular
  42. What is the action of the superficial and deep layers of myocardium?
    • wringer-like action
    • ventricles shorten upon contraction
  43. What is the function of the middle layer of myocardium?
    decreases size of chamber (diameter) upon contraction
  44. What is the function of all three layers of myocardium?
    to empty chamber and eject blood into great vessels
  45. What is the cardiac conduction system composed of?
    purkinje fibers
  46. What are Purkinje fibers?
    specialized cardiac muscle fibers
  47. What is the function of the Purkinje fibers?
    transmit electrical impulses to myocardium
  48. What are the components of the cardiac conduction system?
    • sino-atrial node (pacemaker)
    • internodal tracts
    • atrio-ventricular node
    • bundle of His
    • right/left bundle branches    
  49. What is another name for the sino-atrial node?
    pacemaker
  50. Where is the sino-atrial node located?
    at junction of superior vena cava and right atrium
  51. Does the sino-atrial node produce its own electrical impulses?
    yes
  52. How many internodal tracts are there?
    3
  53. What are the internodal tracts?
    consists of Purkinje fibers that connect SA node with AV node
  54. Where are the internodal tracts?
    contained in walls of atria
  55. Where is the atrio-ventricular node?
    in interatrial septum, just above ventricles
  56. What happens at the atrio-ventricular node?
    electrical impulse is re-enforced
  57. What is another name for the Bundle of His?
    • atrio-ventricular bundle
    • common bundle branch 
  58. Where is the Bundle of His?
    in interventricular septum
  59. What does the Bundle of His split into?
    right and left bundle branches
  60. Where are right and left bundle branches?
    lead from the AV bundle to their respective ventricles
  61. What does the moderator band have a portion of to help send electrical impulses to the ventricle?
    has a portion of right bundle branch with Purkinje cell sending electrical impulses to ventricle
  62. What is the cardiac plexuses?
    nerve networks comprised of autonomic fibers
  63. Where is the superficial cardiac plexus located?
    in concavity of aortic arch
  64. Where is the deep cardiac plexus located?
    in fibrous pericardium anterior to tracheal bifurcation
  65. The superficial cardiac plexus receives the left superior sympathetic cardiac nerve from which ganglion?
    left superior cervical ganglion
  66. Where does the deep cardiac plexus receive bilateral branches from?
    all cervical sympathetic chain ganglia, except left superior cervical ganglion and thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia T1-4
  67. The thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia T1-4 send branches to which cardiac plexus?
    deep cardiac plexus
  68. Which cardiac plexus contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers?
    both
  69. Where do postganglionic sympathetic fibers of the cardiac plexuses terminate?
    sino-atrial node
  70. What actions result from sympathetic stimulation?
    • increased heart rate
    • increased force of contraction
    • vasodilation of coronary arteries (increase blood flow to heart muscles -- increase cardiac output
  71. In parasympathetic contribution, the deep cardiac plexus receives which branches from the vagus nerves?
    • left superior cardiac branch
    • right superior cardiac branch
    • right inferior cardiac branch
  72. In parasympathetic contribution, the deep cardiac plexus receives numerous recurrent branches from which nerves?
    both recurrent laryngeal nerves
  73. In parasympathetic contribution, the superficial cardiac plexus receives which branch of the left vagus nerve?
    left inferior cardiac branch
  74. Pre-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers pass through which cardiac plexus to synapse with post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers?
    both cardiac plexuses
  75. Where do pre/post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse?
    adjacent to sino-atrial node (on the surface)
  76. Where do the post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers terminate?
    at sino-atrial node
  77. What actions result from parasympathetic stimulation?
    • decreased heart rate
    • decreased force of contraction
    • vasoconstric coronary AA 
  78. What structures pass through the superior thoracic aperture?
    • cervial parietal pleura
    • trachea
    • vagus N

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