botanical medicine terminology

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botanical medicine terminology
2012-07-10 15:23:50
clinical nutrition

clinical nutrition
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  1. adaptogen/tonic
    • strengthens the body systems
    • ginsing 
  2. analgesic
    reduces/relieves pain
  3. anodyne
    pain relieving, not as strong as anesthetic or narcotic
  4. antihelmintic/vermifuge
    expels/destroys intestinal worms
  5. antipyretic/febrifuge
  6. reduces or prevents fever
  7. antispasmodic
    relieves spasms or cramps
  8. aphrodisiac
    incereases sexual desire or potency
  9. astringent
    • contracts or shrinks tissues, used to decreases secretions and control bleeding
    • witch hazel
    • horse chestnut 
  10. bitter tonic
    • posses an acrid, astringent or disagreeable taste that timulates the flow of saliva and gastric juices
    • gentian root 
  11. calmative
    mild sedative or hypnotic properties
  12. carminative
    • stops the formation of intestinal gases and helps expel gas that has already formed
    • peppermint
    • chamomile 
  13. cathartic/purgative
    powerfully activates intestinal peristalsis, used to relieve severe constipation
  14. cholegogue/choleretic
    • stimulates secretion and release of bile
    • dandilion root 
  15. counterirritant
    caouses a distracting irritation intended to relieve another irritation
  16. demulcent
    • soothes irritated tissue, esprecially mucous membranes
    • slippery elm
    • aloe leaf 
  17. diaphoretic
    promotes swelling
  18. diuretic
    promotes urine production and flow
  19. emetic
    induces vomiting
  20. emollient
    softens or soothes skin
  21. expectorant
    increases bronchial secretions and facilitats their expulsion through coughing, spitting or sneezing
  22. galactogogue
    increases secretion of milk
  23. hepatic
    affects the liver
  24. laxative
    • gently promotes bowel movements
    • senna
    • cascara
    • psyllium 
  25. nervine
    calms nervousness, tension, or excitement
  26. pectoral
    relieves ailments of the chest and lungs
  27. sedative
    • reduces nervous tension, usually stronger than a calmative
    • valerian 
  28. soporific
    induces sleep
  29. stimulant
    excites or quickens a process or activity of the body
  30. stomachic
    gives strength and tone to the stomach or stimulates the appetite by promoting digestive secretions
  31. powder preparation
    dried and ground plant part used in tablets and capsules
  32. infusion preparation
    weak extraction using brief exposure to hot water as in making a tea
  33. decoction preparation
    stronger extraction than infusion by boiling in water for longer periods
  34. tincture preparation
    • fluid extraction (usually alcohol) with longer exposure time (up to weeks)
    • 1:5-10 conc 
  35. fluid extract preparation
    • fluid extraction after which some fluid is distrilled away
    • 1:1 conc 
  36. solid extract preparation
    • most concentrated extract produced by evaporating all the fluid
    • most common preparation
    • 2:1 to 8:1 conc 
  37. standardized extract
    contains a consistent amount of the active ingredient