Response that take llonger, but necessary for a cure:
-Killing of infected host cells
Targeted to a specific microbe
-Memory cells that are produced "remember" that microbe and when exposed agian the memory cells "kick in" and rapidly eliminate microbes.
Make protection by vaccine possible. Vaccine microbial afntigen is given to the patient for the immune response make memory cells.
Immune system components?
Fluid is removed from the blood vessel to tissues (carring nutrients) to lymph vessels (drainage system) to lymph nodes (containg phagocytic wbc's) filtering debris and mivrobe and fluid then back to the blood.
Swollen lymph nodes?
Mostly due to an increase in the number of phagocytic wbc's(responding to infection)
Leukocytes (white blood cells)?
All are formed from blood cell steam cells.
Mature in the thymus
Mature in the bursa tissue (bone marrow)
Y shaped proteins each tip can attach to a antigen
Enhances phagocytosis and reduce number of infectious units to be dealt with by trapping the bacteria.
Neutralization (no longer a treat)?
Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa by coating with antibodies.
Blocks active site of toxin (molecule).
Activation of Complement?
Only kills the bacteria (cell lysis). Complement binds with antibodies to help lysin the bacteria.
Disruption of cell by complement/reactive protein attracts (antibodies) phagocytic and other defensive immune system cells.
Infectious dose- number of microbes needed to establish infection in 50% of the population.
Bact. #1-ID50=20 cells
(will establish infection; few cells)
Bact. #2-ID50=10,000 cells
ID50 measures pathogencity ability of microbes to establish infection.
Lethal dose- number of microbes needed to kill 50% of population.
LD50 measures virulent- degree of pathogencity- how well microbes can cause series problems in host.
Microbial rate of reproduction and establishing infections?
-Microbe has a rapid rate of reproduction can establish infection (as immune sys. starts to get activated)
-Tuberculosis (very slow grower) in a healthy patient-immune sys. get rid of it before it can establish infection.