Social Studies Texas Generalist teacher certification
Social Studies flash cards part 1 for the Texas Generalist Teacher Certification test
From the turn of the 20th century until World War I, members of the ___________ sponsored legislation to improve the quality of American life and move away from political corruption.
__________ enacted pure food and drugs laws to protect consumers.
The __________ began to gain support against drinking alcohol, but bootleg (illegal) alcohol continued to make its way into American homes and establishments.
Temperance supports hoped that ___________ (prohibiting the sale and consumption of alcohol) would solve the nation’s poverty, crime, violence, and other social problems.
Reformers like _________ and _________supported women’s efforts to gain the right to vote (or suffrage).
Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Chapman Catt
Which amendment was signed in 1920, giving women the right to vote?
Women pioneers in male-dominated areas (such as aviation) furthered the position of women in society. In 1932, ________ became the first women to cross the Atlantic Ocean, flying from Newfoundland to Northern Ireland in 14 hours 56 minutes.
_________and one other crew member were attempting to circumnavigate the globe from west to east when her plane disappeared somewhere over the Pacific Ocean.
What happened to _________still remains a mystery today.
The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was founded in ______.
_________ and suffragette __________ founded the NAACP.
W.E.B. Dubois and Mary White Ovington
Although slavery had ended, African Americans in the United States were still denied opportunities simply because of their race. There are many examples of those who overcame this discrimination. One is___________, born in Atlanta, Texas in 1892.
Who was the first African American woman to become an airline pilot and the first American woman to hold an international pilots license?
Who was the African American woman who pioneered in the field of hair care and cosmetics in the early 1900s?
Madam C.J. Walker
By 1917, Madam Walker had the largest business owned by an African American. Who was the first female American to be a self-made millionaire?
Madam C.J. Walker
Child labor was outlawed, and children were guaranteed schooling under what law?
Compulsory Education Law
Who lived in Chicago (and established Hull House for immigrant children with working mothers), and was instrumental in protecting children from child labor in the early 1900s?
Who in the 1920s helped found the American Civil Liberties Union and was the first American woman to receive the Noble Peace Prize?
Many huge companies gained _________(owned all of the goods or services of a particular type) with ___________ one of the first.
Monopolies, Standard Oil
In 1904, under the leadership of ___________, the oil company controlled more than 90 percent of oil production in the United States.
John D. Rockefeller
__________laws were enacted to eliminate monopolies and regulate other unfair trade practices.
The ______________allowed the government to create a central bank that controlled the monetary supply of the United States
Federal Reserve System
After World War I, Americans grew tired of reforms and wanted a _______________. This an era in which government would play a less important role in people’s lives.
Return to Normalcy
In the Roaring 1920s the economy boomed, and Americans devoted themselves to making and spending of money. In this frivolous ear of ___________ and ____________ (clubs where illegal alcohol was served), sports and film stars attracted national attention and jazz music gained in popularity.
Flappers and Speakeasies
In 1925 this great novel came to symbolize the entire era of the 1920s.
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
Tuesday October 29, 1929, is better known as ______Tuesday.
The ____________brought national prosperity and good times to a sudden and violent end.
Stock Market Crash
With millions of people unemployed, the ________________soon had its grip on the nation and the world.
One of the worst droughts in American history began in 1930. The region, stretching north from Texas into the Dakotas, came to be known as ____________.
The Dust Bowl
Overgrazing and overplanting, a steady decline in rainfall, and accompanying increase in heat turned fertile farm regions into virtual deserts or ____________.
In 1939, the novel ___________depicted the classic portrayals of this period, how many farmers left their land in search of work.
The Grapes of Wrath
President______________ proposed a New Deal to combat the effects of the depression.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt proposed legislation to offer relief to the unemployed, to prevent economic abuses, and to reconstruct the economy with programs such as the _______________, Social Security, and regulations of Wall Street.
TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)
FDR’s legislative proposals eased some suffering, but the Great Depression did not end until the country _________ for World War II.
During the Great Depression, ______________ changed the role First Lady.
The ____________provided social insurance for the elderly and the unemployed.
Social Security Act
The ____________ was set up to regulate stock market (on Wall Street).
Security Exchange Commission (SEC)
The __________ gave jobs to the unemployed.
Works Progress Administration
The _______________ put people to work building a series of dams that provided electricity to one of the most depressed areas in the nation.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
What war was fought in part by Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt?
The Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American War was fought in part by ___________ (who later became president) after Cuba asked the United States for help against Spain?
Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
What territories were freed from Spain after a treaty was signed that ended the Spanish-American War?
Cuba, the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
In 1917, World War I saw the United States was fighting with the Allies. Who were the Allies?
France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, Serbia
The United States and the Allies were fighting against the Central Powers. Who were the Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungry, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria
Who were the main Allies in World War II?
France, the former USSR, and Great Britain
Who were the Axis that fought in World War II beginning in Europe in 1939?
Germany, Italy, Austria, and Japan
Switzerland and others remained neutral. The Untied States entered the war when Japan bomed _________ in 1941.
World War II ended with a victory for the Allies in year_______.
The United States fought the _______War from 1950-1953 after North Korea (with the help of some Chinese troops) invaded South Korea.
__________ was a long war that began under President John F. Kennedy in the mid-1960s and ended in 1975.
Initial arguments for the United States entering the war centered on holding the line of communism there rather than having South Vietnam fall and letting communism spread to other countries in the Far East. What is this theory an example of?
The Domino Theory
What war ended in 1991, in which there were high tensions between the West and the Communist Block led by the USSR?
The Cold War
What war began in 1990 and only lasted for 42 days (for the United States)?
Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm)
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at the time of the Gulf War was General_________?
In 2001, President George W. Bush appointed ___________ as Security of State, at the time he was the only African American to have served in that position up to this time.
After the Attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11/01, the Bush administration identified who as the mastermind behind the attacks?
Osama bin Laden
From the 1890s to the 1940s, American foreign policy alternated between _____________ (retreat from international concerns) and ______________ (active involvement in world affairs).
Isolationism and Internationalism
The United States also went through periods of ___________ (a move to restrict immigrants) during the 1880s, due to a large influx of immigrants from many countries.
William Seward, as Security of State in 1897, purchased ________ and the Aleutian Islands from Russia.
Alaska was a great economic profit for the United States when the discovery of _________caused a huge rush to the area in the 1890s and then much later _______ was discovered.
In the late 1890s, the United States adopted an activist foreign policy of expansionism toward the Caribbean and the Pacific. It began to pursue a policy of __________, or expansionism, the political and economic control of other territories for purpose of prestige, protectionism, power, and wealth.
In 1898, the United States went to war to free Cuba from Spanish rule and to protect American trading interests. This war resulted in the ______________ War, the United States gained control of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
The United States annexed the Hawaiian Islands as a territory in year _____.
Many historians have viewed this action to be the trigger for World War I in 1914.
Serbian assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sarajevo
Argument by Serbia wanting to separate (after having being annexed into Austria-Hungary), along with the military buildup of many European countries (and other causes), resulted in an escalation that would later be called___________. European nations took sides and formed powerful alliances.
World War I
The United States, under President Woodrow Wilson, tried to maintain policy of ____________.
In 1917, Germany’s submarines sank unarmed American merchant ships and a British passenger ship, the _________, killing 1,200 people, among them 128 Americans.
The United States joined the ________powers –Great Britain, France, Russia, among other – in fighting the ________powers – Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and their allies.
Allied powers, Central powers
The ______________ (AEF), under command of John J. Pershing, entered the war in the spring of 1918.
American Expeditionary Force
What was John J. Pershing’s nickname? He gained his nickname after he led African American troops during his regular army days. Pershing eventually became the highest-ranking general in the U.S. history.
Several new weapons of war were tested during the _________of World War I. Poisons gas, rapid-fire machine guns, and the airplane were just a few of the weapons of devastation.
The war had become a virtual _________, with neither side gaining ground, until American entered the war.
The first major battle in which the Americans participated saw defeat of the Germans at ____________ (June 1918). The entry of Americans into the war was seen to turn the tide in favor of the Allies.
When Germany accepted defeat in November 1918, both sides signed an________.
In early 1918, Russia signed a separate peace agreement with the Central Powers and left the war because of ____________ in October 1917.
The communist, led by V.I. Lenin, took control of the country and killed __________and his family. This began the communist domination of Russia, which lasted more than 70 years.
By 1930s, it is estimated that Joseph Stalin’s regime had killed or persecuted millions of Russians in _________ (prisons for political opposition, usually found in areas such as Siberia).
At the end of World War I, during the treaty making at the French palace at Versailles)________
Treaty of Versailles
President Wilson put forth his idealist ______points to foster world trade and fair territorial settlements.
These were ignored by the __________powers who sought to severely punish the Central Powers.
The United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles due to Wilson’s political miscalculations and subsequent __________.
Disillusioned with the peace-making process, Americans returned to an isolationist policey and rejected membership in the __________, an international organization intended to settle international disputes peaceably.
League of Nations
Without the American influence in the peace process, Allied powers proceeded with their ________, or payment for damages, which began to experience devastating economic hardships.
Who emerged to rally the German people toward nationalist pride and against the countries who had demanded such staunch reparations?
With the rise in militaristic governments, who were the main offenders from Germany, Italy, and Japan? They made the post war settlements of the Treaty of Versailles not last long.
Germany- Adolf Hitler; Italy-Benito Mussolini (fascists); Japan-Emperor Hirohito and Admiral Hideki Tojo
In the 1930s, these _______powers bean to absorb neighboring European countries (such as Czechoslovakia), and Japan invaded China.
British Prime Minister, ___________ declared a policy of appeasement (giving in to demands and ignoring aggression in order to keep the peace) in response.
__________ finally erupted for Europe in 1939, when German troops marched into Poland, violating their independence.
World War II
The United States sided with the _________, including France, Great Britain, and Soviet Union against the Axis_________.
Allies ; Germany, Italy, Japan
On Sunday, December 7, 1941 at 7:55 am Japanese bombing of U.S. Pacific Fleet navy ships stationed in ____________. President Roosevelt declared that the United States would enter the war.
Japanese planes had sunk ___battleships and ___cruisers, killing more than 2,400American sailors.
8 , 3
American forces fought the war in both Europe (mainly on land) and the Pacific (mainly on the seas). The chief military planner for the United States was Chief of Staff___________.
George C. Marshall
The most decorated soldier during World War II was Texan. Who was this fine man?
__________ was another Texan that was awarded the Medal of Honor recipient of Hispanic decent.
Who were the four chaplains that gave up their life vest to safe their troops when there was not enough for everyone? They went down with the ship.
They were two protestant ministers, a catholic priest, and a rabbi
The _________________ were a group of young men (some as young as 15), who served in World War II because the enemy were able to so easily break the codes in English. Their service saved countless lives because it was difficult for anyone else to learn their native tongue.
Navajo Code Talkers
In 1942-1943, the tide of battle in Europe shifted in favor of the Allies when the German offensive on the Eastern Front was stopped at____________.
By Russian forces, Allied forces, and under the leadership of _____________ recaptured North Africa.
General George Patton
What was Hitler’s plan called for the extermination of Jews (and others he deemed “unsuitable” or not of their “master race”)?
The ____________ claimed the lives of 6 million Jews, almost two-thirds of Europe’s Jewish population, as well as many others, such as gypsies, homosexuals, and anyone considered “mentally defective”.
______________ became the first woman commander in the U.S. Army as colonel of the WAACs (Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps).
Oveta Culp Hobby
On June 6, 1944, the Commander of U.S. military forces in Europe, ___________, launched the Allied invasion-termed ___Day- to liberate France from the Germans.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower, D-
The land war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945 (____Day), but the war continued in the Pacific against Japan (____Day) until August of that year.
VE Day , VJ Day
After Pearl Harbor, American anger, fear, and mistrust of the Japanese grew and FDR authorized _____________.
In the ______________, the Japanese lost four aircraft carriers compared to one American carrier.
Battle of Midway
Island fighting intensified as American forces advanced toward Japan. Later the Japanese started sending out _________ (suicide) planes against the American ships.
One of the costliest battles for the Marine Corps, the Battle of______, was just about 750 mile Tokyo. More than 100,000 Japanese died in this battle.
Battle of Okinawa
What President died during his fourth term in office?
_____________, the Vice President, succeeded President Roosevelt in office after his death.
Harry S. Truman
In May 1945, American forces began a firebombing campaign on Tokyo itself. The __________ was the first strike to reach the main islands of Japan.
In order to end the war and save what he believed to be thousands of American lives, President________ made the decision to use nuclear weapons against Japan.
On August 6, 1945, An American B-29, the Enola Gay, dropped an __________ on the city of____________ instantly killing more than 80,000 people.
Atomic Bomb, Hiroshima
A second bomb was dropped on August 9, 1945 at ____________, inflecting another 40,000 deaths.
Emperor _________ persuaded his ministers to surrender unconditionally on August 14, 1945.
On September 2, 1945, on board the American battleship ___________, anchored in Tokyo Bay, Japanese officials signed the articles of surrender.
Germany was divided into Soviet-controlled ______Germany and free _____Germany.
Berlin, Germany’s capital was divided into ________ for the Soviets, French, British, and the Americans.
More than 14 million combatants, not including civilians, lost their lives in World War II. ________ committed suicide in his Berlin bunker rather than face capture and trail.
A war crime tribunal was, however, set up in _________ to bring Nazis who had participated in crimes against humanity to trail.
___________________________________, or Old Americans, crossed the land bridge that was believed to connect Asia with Alaska roughly 37,000 years ago.
Before the land bridge disappeared, a new group of humans made their way across it and eventually to Texas. These people were called______________________.
The Neo American Age was around ________________ years ago.
The people went from a nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to a sedentary__________________ lifestyle.
They stayed in one place and began growing crops including corn, beans,_________,___________ and squash.
Tomatoes and potatoes
These people have been referred to as ___________________ because of the burial and temple mounds they erected in the Piney Woods of East Texas.
The largest group of these mound builders was the _________________ Nation, who was once the largest and most powerful American Indian group in Texas.
The Caddoan tribes grew many varieties of crops and lived in _________________ made up of large timbered houses, which were domed and thatched.
South of the Caddo Nation, along the Gulf Coast, lived a number of smaller tribes. One of the most powerful was the ________________.
These Native Americans inhabited an area from ______________to Corpus Cristi.
The Jumano and _______________peoples both lived in far West Texas.
The Jumano were well known _________________.
The Tonkawa lived over the __________________Escarpment.
The Tonkawa lived by hunting, fishing and gathering _____________.
The Tonkawa did not hunt or raid very far north of the Texas Plains. They were relatively confined to the Edwards Plateau by a fierce tribe known as the ________.
The Apaches maintained control of the largest buffalo territory. Anthropologists believe that the typical buffalo hunting cultures of the Plains evolved first in _______and then spread north.
The _____________ Indians centered their lives on the buffalo.
The great hunts took place in the ___________and the ___________.
Every part of the buffalo was used. It is believed they had up to ___uses of the animal.
Apaches made _________out of buffalo skins.
Four to _____ people would live in one teepee.
The __________people became exceptional horsemen after the __________________brought horses to the New World.
Originally, the _______migrated south because of the greater to the mustangs that roamed wild.
Like many of the Plains Indians, the Commanche were _______________.
Because of their trading skills, the Commanche controlled much of the commerce of the Plains. Because of this, The _______and the _________became mortal enemies.
The most famous chief and warrior of the Commanche was ___________ whose mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, had been captured as a child in a raid on Fort _________.
In the 1700’s, missions and presidios(fortified areas) were built with great walls to protect __________, settlers and native converts.
Throughout the 1800’s, ______were established in Texas as protection for white settlers,
___________________are believed to be the oldest state law enforcement agency in the United States. They were established in 1835 by ____________.
Texas Rangers, Stephen F. Austin
More settlers coming to Texas meant diminished food supply and it also meant more clashes with Native American tribes. In 1874, the U.S. Army prepared to remove the ____________ from the Panhandle area of Texas in the____________.
Plains Indians, Red River War.
After more than 20 skirmishes, the Commanche tribe under _________ surrendered and was removed to a Kiowa- Commanche- Apache Indian reservation in _________ in 1875.
Quanah, Ft. Sill Oklahoma
___________________was the first known European to explore and map the Texas coastline in the year_________________.
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, 1519
What are the 6 flags over Texas?
Spanish, Mexican, French, Texan, Confederate, and United States
In 1528, Cabeza de Vaca was shipwrecked on present day _______________Island. His small band of explorers wandered the area for 6 years. He made his way to Mexico City were he related a legend of the _________________________.
Galveston, Seven Cities of Gold
________________traveled with Cabeza de Vaca and was the first known African to set foot in the Americas.
From 1540 to 1542 ___________________, a conquistador, led expeditions through West and North Texas, New Mexico, and Kansas to find the gold mentioned in the legend of the Seven cities of gold.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Coronado claimed for __________all the territory he explored.
Priest began to settle and build missions in the conquered territory so they could civilize and convert to Catholicism the _______________of the area.
The first Spanish mission in Texas was ______________established near El Paso in 1682.
Corpus Christi de la Isleta
Missions often had presidios or __________attached to them or nearby to protect those who lived in the missions.
The _______claim to Texas is because of the explorer Rene-Robert Cavelier Sieur de LaSalle who set foot on Texas soil in 1685. He established Fort St. Louis inland from Matagorda Bay.
Louisiana area, the Spaniards established Mission San Francisco de los tejas in 1690 as Alarmed by the _____________presence and settlements in Texas and nearby the first East Texas mission.
European diseases such as ______________and_________spread rapidly among the Indians and decimated their populations. By the end of the 18th century, the Caddo Indians had almost disappeared.
Measles and Small pox
A small Spanish mission was built in the early 1700’s and was called San Antonio de Valero, otherwise known as the _____________.
More and more people began moving to the San Antonio area and by 1726, there were more than 200 men women and children lived there. Other Spanish towns founded in this same time period are ____________ and ____________.
Goliad and Nacogdoches
In 1821, Jane Long became known as the “Mother of_________” because she referred to herself as the first English-speaking women to bear a child in Texas.
By 1800, ____________colonization of the Rio Grande area affected Texas more than all other missions. Mexicans who moved to Texas were called __________.
In 1821, _______gained independence from Spain.
Stephen F. Austin, known as the ___________of Texas, received permission from the Mexican government to settle a colony of 300 families, now known as the _________ in the Brazos region in southeast Texas. This was the first of the Mexican land grants to Anglos.
Father, Old Three Hundred
Despite restrictions by Mexico, by 1836 there were up to 50,000 Anglo settlers in Texas. The sign GTT was left on many doors as settlers moved from other states and territories to Texas. The GTT stands for________________.
Gone to Texas.
Any material supplied by the earth that people can put into use is called a _____ resource.
Resources can be a ______ factor that attracts people to an area. Lack or loss of resources can be a_____ factor, meaning that people want to leave an area in which they originally settled.
Land forms, vegetation, water sources, all weather and climate, soil, and animal life are all examples of _____ ______.
What type of resources are those that can be replaced in the foreseeable future?
Minerals in the earth's crust and such as iron, gold, silver (medal ores), and oil, natural gas, coal (fossil fuels) are all examples of_____resources.
Fertile soil and _____land (land suitable for farming) are needed for an agricultural economy to succeed.
The process of using water to turn wheels and generate electricity is known as_____power.
Waterways serve as important ratification routes for ships carrying raw materials and manufactured goods. _____cities develop where there are good harbors or waterways.
Dirty air and water are often unsafe for living things. Industries sometimes _____ Rivers, lakes, and oceans by dumping toxic (poisonous) wastes.
Oil spills are a hazard for plants and animals. Unpredictable _____ hazards occur when nature creates a disaster such as an earthquake, landslide, erosion, an infestation of insects, or weather disasters.
When acids returning precipitation to pollute land, trees, and bodies of water, it is known as_____ _____.
A Federal government agency called the _____ _____ _____ (EPA) monitors air and water and tracks down polluters
Environmental Protection Agency
Texas is currently the second largest state in both population and in territory. The largest state in terms of population is ______. The largest state in terms of territory is ______.
______is larger than most nations and contains almost every major land form: mountains, plains, plateaus, lakes, rivers, hills, and so forth.
What are the four major land regions in Texas?
Gulf Coastal Plains, North Central Plains, the Great Plains, and the Trans Pecos Region
The ______ Region extends into the northernmost areas of Texas, including the Panhandle.
Texas has set of the largest urban areas in the United States. Name two of these areas.
Houston, Dallas/Ft Worth, San Antonio
What is the capital of Texas?
Of the four major land regions of Texas, the ______, an immense lowland area in the southern and eastern portions of Texas, covers about one third of the state.
Gulf Coastal Plains
The ______ Woods makes up the eastern section of the Gulf Coastal Plains.
The ______, located on the south/southwest border with Mexico and bordering the Gulf of Mexico makes up the southern section of the Gulf Coastal Plains.
The ______ River marks the border with Texas and Mexico.
An ______ is an underground geologic will formation that is water bearing or that stores or transmits water.
Located in the North Central Plains, the largest aquifer is known as the ______ Aquifer.
This study of the ways in which goods and services are created, distributed, and exchanged is ______.
The ______ ______ ______ of a society is the material-well being of its members. The United States has won the world's highest.
Standard of living
Fill in the blank. secondary, primary, tertiary, quarternary
A nation's economy can be defined in various types of industry. ______ industry extracts raw materials (ex. Mining, fishing, farming). ______industry involves manufacturing finished goods (ex. chemical and engineering industries, automakers, construction). ______ industry provides a service (ex. Banking, healthcare, entertainment) or market products from primary or secondary industries. ______ industries involve research and development industries (government, information technology).
What at the three major types and economic systems?
communism, socialism, capitalism
______ economics (rarely seen anymore) in some native groups are economies that produce and distribute goods through old custom beliefs.
______ is one of the three major types of economic systems. In this system, the government owns all businesses and makes all production decisions. This can also be seen as a command economy.
In a ______ economy, all citizens are supposed to share equally in the country's wealth.
______, a type of economic system, is based on the idea of a cooperative society in which wealth is more equally distributed and basic social needs are taken care of through the government.
______ is an economic system in which individuals basically control the means of production, distribution, and exchange.
Capitalism and is a ______-______ system in which citizens may engage in whatever business they choose and may produce and change what they want, to the extent of supply, demand, and price that the market allows.
Some individuals, called ______, may take the risk in return for a visionary financial opportunity. These people combine land, labor, or capital to create and market new goods or services.
______ invented a type of steel plow and founded the largest agricultural equipment company in the world.
An individual who buys or uses goods and services for personal wants is a ______.
When the supply of a particular desired good or service is low, the price normally ______.
When the supply of a particular desired good or service is high, the price normally goes ______.
Businesses that make ______ (concrete products to sell) or provide ______ (work done for someone such as computer, car, or home repair; Medical Care; teaching; or consulting) must always consider supply and demand in order to make a profit.
______ is the amount of available goods and services. ______ is how many people want to buy the product or service.
A(n) ______ ______ is an arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for a continuous flow of parts in mass production operations. The development of these has meant a faster production of goods and also standardized products.
The assembly line can stop if the division of ______ is too specialized (each worker only knows a specified part of a job), in one link of the assembly line is sick or away. All assembly lines should use some amount of cross training in order to maintain productivity levels.
The demand for some goods and services is not greatly affected by price. For example, the demands for milk or bread does not change much, even if prices go higher. The demand for these products is said to be ______. In contrast, the demand for products such as digital cameras, computers, or new types of phones greatly increases when prices drop. The demand for these products is ______.
The ______ point is the price at which consumers buy exactly the amount supplied by the producer.
Where there's overproduction, a ______ is created, and the saturation of the market causes the demand as well as the price to fall. When there is unproduction, a ______ occurs, and prices rise.
Consumer protection groups, like Nader's Raiders, founded by _____ ______, check the safety and reliability of products and services and the accuracy of the claims in advertisements.
To create goods and services, a business needs four things: (1) natural resource of land, (2) labor, (3) capital or investment, and (4) entrepreneurship. These things are known as factors of ______.
______ resources are materials that can be found in nature. Metal ores, water, wood, and land are examples of these resources.
______ is the human activity that is required to produce goods or services.
______ collar workers are manual laborers (ex. Construction workers, electricians, factory employees) and ______ collar workers are employed at desk jobs in offices (ex. Lawyers, bankers, and journalists).
______ is wealth used to produce more wealth.
What is any activity in which goods and services are exchange for prophet?
A ______ proprietorship is a business and about one person. These proprietorships make up 75% of U.S. businesses. About 8% of U.S. businesses are ______, in which two or more people are owners and operators.
The business that is licensed, or chartered, by state or local governments is a ______. These businesses are owned by people who buy shares (stocks) in the business.
Stockholders' receive ______, or earnings from the business, based on the number of shares they own.
______ unions are formed by many workers in a particular industry or service to protect the rights of their members against the owners or management.
What does AFL-CIO stand for? Hint: It is the largest labor union in the United States.
American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization
What did Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta organize?
They organized Mexican American migrant and other agricultural workers in California into the United Farm Workers Union to remedy their harsh working conditions and low wages.
What is a corporation that owns or controls companies in many fields called?
Union workers can argue to ______ (or refuse to work) and protest on picket lines.
______ is the excess of income over all costs that a business has in producing its goods or services, including interest cost of the wealth invested. This is the money made after all expenses.
What is the term for a specific quantity of a specific good for which an individual will pay almost any price, because these are the basic goods or services a person must have for day-to-day survival?
______ occurs when there is an insufficient supply or amount of something needed. The lack of availability of a particular good affects the price consumers have to pay.
What is the term used for the amount of money, or other goods, that you must give up to buy goods or services?
______ is an exchange of goods for goods or services without using money.
Fill in the blank: free market, free enterprise
______ ______ is a system in which sellers and buyers are free to engage in commercial transactions with little or no government regulation, and in which the ______ ______ drives what and how much individuals or companies produce and for whom and in what manner.
correct answer: free enterprise, free market
With respect to economics, what is the term that loosely means "hands-off" and is a doctrine of government noninterference in the economy except as necessary to maintain economic freedom?
What is the term used to describe how one industry depends on the work of another?
The U.S. government raises and spends billions of dollars each year. To pay for these activities, the U.S. government (and state and local governments) accumulates_______ (income), mainly through a variety of taxes.
The ______ ______ tax brings in the most money. This is a money that every citizen who works must pay (usually as a deduction from his or her employment check).
The rate of tax is based on one's income. Those who have a low income pay fewer taxes than those who are in the middle and higher income brackets. There are ______ that many can make (ex. how many dependents a worker has).
The second largest amount of revenue comes from ______ ______ taxes such as that for Social Security (a proportional tax taken out of payroll).
Fill in the blank. property taxes, sales taxes
States and communities also collect ______ ______ on goods that are purchased and ______ ______ assessed on the value of the property one owns.
correct answer: sales taxes, property taxes
What are the taxes on nonessential items, such as tobacco?
Charges levied on imported items (special taxes) are called?
In recent years, government expenditures have been greater than revenues (or the government has spent more than it takes in); this results in a budget ______. The accumulated total of these deficits is called the federal debt.
To get some of the money it needs, the government often borrows money through the sale of ______.
The movement from one level of economic activity to another and back again is known as the ______ cycle.
When the economy moves down from prosperity to ______, production decreases and unemployment increases.
What is the term used for a very bad recession, such as the one the United States experienced in the 1930s?
A condition that has an adverse effect on the economy is ______, a general rise in prices.
The government has examined ______-______ economics as a way of getting the economy to recover. The government decreases taxes and increases benefits for companies and businesses so that they can hire more people and make more goods.
The ______ ______ ______ (or "The Fed"), consisting of 12 regional banks, is a regulatory agency with the power to supervise the country's banks and adjust the money supply. In a way, they can shrink the money supply to combat inflation.
Federal Reserve System
The government makes decisions affecting the economy by studying various statistics called economic indicators. The ______ ______ ______ (CPI) is a way of measuring the dollar's value. The CPI is the average price of essential goods and services (such as food, housing, and transportation).
Consumer Price Index
The ______ ______ ______ (GNP) is the sum of all goods and services produced by U.S. citizens-no matter where they are produced. For example, if a U.S. factory operates a plant in Mexico, then the profits that the firms earn would contribute to the GNP of the United States.
Gross National Product
As the leading trade nation, the United States ______ (brings in) and ______ (sends out) billions of dollars of goods annually, making up the country's balance of trade.
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ (NAFTA) is the trade agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which eliminates many tariffs to promote trade.
the North American Free Trade Agreement
What country exports many goods that other countries do not make or cannot produce as cheaply. Many of this country's industries-especially agriculture-depend on exporting for a large share of their profits.
When tariffs are used to make foreign goods more expensive thatn similar items made at home, what type of market is created?
What is the term that means a ban that is imposed on trade because of a conflicting policy?
______ corridors, where people and freight or other goods, such as oil or other energy, food, and so forth are easily moved, are important in trade.
When freight, people, and so on move from one type of transportation to another (rail to plane to ship), it is usually at a ______ point.
What type of crop is an agricultural crop destined to be sold rather than used by the farmer?
As early as the times of Stephen F. Austin's original colony, the leading export was King ______ (so called because it was the "king" of crops and very valuable). This crop was the heart of the economy during the era of the Republic of Texas and early statehood.
In the early 1900s, the ______ ______, a type of beetle, inflicted serious on Texas cotton crops. In 1904, an estimated 700,000 bales were lost to this bug at a cost of approximately $42 million.
The demand for beef in the 19th century created a link between the western frontier and the industrial marketplace, which led to the ______ kingdom drawing people and money from outside the state and involved agricultural products shipped to distant markets. By 1866, this kingdom had replaced cotton as the king in Texas.
One of the more famous cattle trails, along with the Chisholm trail, was the ______-______ Trail, established by Charles Goodnight, who rounded up cattle mostly in the Panhandle of Texas and drove them north to make more money off of selling the cattle.
Who was known as the "Cattle Queen of Texas" and was thought to be one of the first to drive her cattle up the Chisholm Trail?
One of the largest ranches in the world that takes up much of the land between Corpus Christi and Brownsville, Texas is called?
The King Ranch
In the 1880s, the ______ Ranch, owned by a syndicate, covered 3 million acres and portions of 10 Texas counties and was the largest fenced ranch in the world.
Where was the first major oil discovery in Texas?
Spindletop, Texas (near Beaumont)
An economic boom was caused in the 1970s after a ______ embargo was caused by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
In 1981, the petroleum industry contributed 27 percent of the state's _____ state product (GSP).
In recent years, the Texas economy has diversified from oil and ______ ______ production, both of which are still very important to the state economy.
To what is the amount of an agricultural product that can be grown or produced and actually sold (due to factors such as weather, pests, and so forth)?
In 2008, computers and Electronic Products work Texas is second largest ______ goods export.
The economy and the ______ of Texas continue to grow due to the warm climate, the favorable taxation, and the lower cost of land and housing in Texas.
In 2010,______ was reported the 11th largest economy in the world.
A __________ acts on behalf of the group, making and enforcing laws and providing for other needs.
Sovereignty in a democracy lies with the people, which is called what?
What is present to guarantee that the individual is protected through a system of rights in the court system, and he/she cannot be punished arbitrarily?
What types of studies show how different types of governments function?
Types of governments can be classified by how many people take part in ___________________.
the decision-making process
One person (such as a king, a queen, a shah or an emperor) usually inherits ruling power
An absolute monarch and his or her appointees have ____________.
Complete authority to govern
A constitutional monarch has _____________ power and must work with other government officials.
What type of government is totally controlled by one person or a small group who usually maintains power by force rather than through democratic principles?
Dictatorship or totalitarian, also termed unlimited government
Famous Dictators and associated Country
Before World War II
Stalin-USSR, Hitler-Germany, Mussolini-Italy
Saddam Hussein-Iraq, Castro-Cuba, Kim Jong Il-North Korea, Hugo Chavez-Venezuela
A small, very powerful governing class rules (In South Africa prior to 1994)
Seeks, but have rarely succeeded, in establishing a classless society in which everyone has common ownership of the means of production
A 19th-Centruy German political economist who is most associated with explaining the concept of communism
All of the people take part in governing the country and the role of the government is limited by its constitution and its people is what type of government?
All of the citizens meet to vote on decisions (Ancient Greece)
The US is a ____________________ in which the people elect representatives, such as the members of Congress, to carry out the work of the government.
The belief in a government headed by elected officials is why the US is referred to as a ________________.
Republic (Pledge of Allegiance)
The writers of the Declaration of Independence expressed a political philosophy of ______________ that is still basic to American government today.
One of the tools that governments (and businesses) use to persuade another person to believe or act on an idea
Techniques of Propaganda
Stacking the deck
The philosophy of the Bill of Rights emphasizes the _______________ and the right to _______________.
Equality of all people, “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
5 years after the American Declaration of Independence was written, the first national constitution governing the US was approved, or _________, by all of the states and the document was know as the _____________________.
Ratified, Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation created a __________________ with very limited powers.
In 1787, 55 delegates from all the states, referred as the ___________ ____________ met at the Constitutional Convention to develop a new system of government.
The Great Compromise
When the Founding Fathers met at the Constitutional Convention a debate about the nature of representation of individuals and of states was settled by the Great Compromise: a 2-chamber, or bicameral, Congress was created, consisting of a House of Representatives (number of representatives is determined by state population) and a Senate (2 representatives from each state are seated). This allowed heavily populated states the advantage in one chamber but all states to have an equal voice in the other. To get legislation through, both chambers must approve a bill (and the bill must be signed by to president or overridden by the Congress).
3 ways the US Constitution provided for shared power and responsibilities:
1. a separation of powers that defines 3 branches of government with distinct powers
2. a system of checks and balances that allows each branch to oversee the other two
3. a federal system that divides governing power between the national government and state governments
3 branches of the federal government:
1. Legislative branch, which includes the two houses of Congress (House and Senate)
2. Executive Branch, whose main power resides with the president who executes or carries out the laws
3. Judicial branch, which includes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts who interpret, according to the Constitution, the meaning and validity of the laws
Elected the first president of the United States under the new constitution and served for 2 terms
Founding Fathers elected president
John Adams & Thomas Jefferson
Her letters to her husband, President John Adams, during the Revolutionary War provide an excellent account of the war, she also served as an early proponent of women’s rights and believed that slavery would threaten the new republic. Indirectly, she was a political force in American politics of the times.
What is a type of democracy in which there is shared power between the national and state governments?
The Constitution was finally approved by the required number of states in _______.
Those who favored the ratification of the Constitution and the idea of shared powers.
Those against ratification of the Constitution because they favored states’ rights
The Federalists promised to pass a ____________________ during the first Congress because anti-Federalists were concerned that the ______________ did not provide strong enough guarantees of state power or of individual liberties.
Bill of Rights, Constitution
________________ and __________________ share the title of “Father of the Bill of Rights.”
George Mason, James Madison
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are called ________________.
The Bill of Rights
Of the first 10 amendments nine of them placed limits on Congress by forbidding what?
Forbidding Congress to infringe on certain basic rights such as:
Freedom of religion
Freedom of speech
Freedom of assembly
Freedom of the press
Immunity from arbitrary arrest
Immunity from the taking of life, liberty or property for a crime without due process of law
The right to a speedy public trial by jury
The right to no excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishments
The 10th Amendment reserved to the ___________ all powers except those specifically withheld from them or delegated to the federal government.
There have been a total of ____ Amendments to the Constitution.
The ____ Amendment prohibited slavery in the United States.
The 15th Amendment guaranteed the ______________ to all men, no matter their race.
Right to vote
The ______ Amendment guaranteed the right to vote to all citizens, including women.
The 24th Amendment declared poll taxes and similar measures designed to prohibit people from ____________ to be unconstitutional.
The _____ Amendment gave 18-year-olds the right to vote.
Amendments are proposed following one of two methods outlined in the Constitution. What are the methods?
1. an amendment must be proposed by 2/3 of both houses of Congress
2. an amendment must be proposed by 2/3 of the state legislatures
Approval by ____ of the state legislatures is needed for an amendment to be ratified.
Powers given specifically to the national government are called __________ or ____________.
Delegated or enumerated powers
What are 3 delegated or enumerated powers?
Establishing foreign policy
Declaring ware and maintain the armed forces
Establishing post offices and standard weights and measures
Creating US courts
Regulating immigration, naturalization, and interstate and foreign commerce
Powers not specifically granted to the national government and not denied to the states are called _____________.
Give an example of reserved powers?
Establishment of schools
Powers shared by both the national and state governments are ____________.
Checks and balances which divide powers in various ways so no group or part of government can become too powerful include what measures?
1. the president has the ability to veto laws passed by the Congress (or legislature)
2. the Congress has the ability, by vote, to override a presidential veto
3. the president has the ability to make appointments to the Supreme Court when a place is open, but it requires the Congress to approve any nominee
4. the Supreme Court can also rule on laws passed by both the Congress and the president as unconstitutional
Taxes collected by the government fund what at the national level?
Public health and safety
Taxes collected by the government fund what at the state/local levels?
Maintains public property such as monuments, parks, beaches, libraries and schools