Microbiology Ch 24 review

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Microbiology Ch 24 review
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2012-07-10 19:03:16
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Microbiology 24 review
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  1. What is the upper respiratory system made up of?
    • -nose
    • -Pharynx (throat)
    • -Middle ear
    • - Eustachian tubes
  2. The lower respiratory system
    • -Larynx
    • -Trachea
    • -Bronchial tubes
    • -Alveoli
    • -Pleura 
  3. Normal Microbiota of Respiratory System
    -Suppress pathogens by competitive inhibition in upper respiratory system

    -Lower respiratory system is sterile  
  4. Upper respiratory system diseases
     
    • -Pharyngitis
    • -laryngitis
    • -tonsillitis
    • -sinusitis
    • -epiglottitis   H.influenzae tybe b 
  5. Streptococcal Pharyngitis
    • -Also called strep throat
    • -Streptococcus pyogens
    • -resistant to phagocytosis
    • -streptokinases lyse clots
    •  -streptolysins are cytotoxic
    • -Diagnosis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests  
  6. Scarlet Fever
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • -pharyngitis
    • -Erythrogenic toxin produced by lysogenized S. pyogenes
  7. Diptheria 
    • -Corynebacterium diphtheriae: gram-positive rod
    • -Diphtheria toxin produced by lysogenized C.diphtheriae

     
  8. Diptheria 

    Diptheria membrane 
    Fibrin, tissue, bacteria cells
  9. Diptheria

    Prevented by?
    • Preventd by DTap vaccine
    •    -Diptheria toxoid

    • Cutaneous diphtheria
    •    -infected skin wounds leads to slow-helaing ulcer  
  10. The common cold

    What percentage is caused by Rhinoviruses 
    50%
  11. The common cold

    What percentage is caused by coronaviruses

     
    15-20% 
  12. Lower Respiratory system diseases

    *Bacteria, viruses and fungi cause: 
    • -Bronchitis
    • -Bronchiolitis
    • -Pnemonia 
  13. Pertussis (whooping cough)
    • -Bordetella pertussis: gram-negative coccobacillus
    • -Capsule
    • -tracheal cytotoxin of cell wall damaged ciliated cells
    • -pertussis toxin
    • -prevented by DTaP vaccine (acellular pertussis cell fragments)  
  14. Pertussis (whooping cough) 

    Stages 
    Stage 1: Catarrhal stage, like common cold

    Stage 2: Paroxysmal stage: violent couphing sieges

    Stage 3: Convalescense stage 
  15. Tuberculosis
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    •      acid-fast rod: transmitted from human to human 
  16. Tuberculosis

    M.bovis 
    Less than 1% U.S. cases

    not transmitted from human to human 
  17. Tuberculosis

    M.avium-intraceullare complex
    infects people with late-stage HIV infection
  18. Treatment of Tuberculosis
    Treatment: prolonged  treatment with multiple antibiotics

    Vaccines: BCG, live, avirulent M.bovis;   not widely used in the United States  
  19. Diagnosis of tuberculosis
    Tuberculin skin test screening

    • -positive reaction means current or previous infection
    • -followed by x-ray or CT exam, acid-fast staining of sputum, culturing of bacteria  
  20. Pneumococcal Pneumonia
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    •   -gram-positive encapsulated diplococci 
  21. Pneumococcal Pneuonia

    Symptoms:
    Diagnosis:
    Treatment:
    Prevention: 
    Symptoms: infected alveoli of lung fill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake

    Diagnosis: Optochin-inhibition test or bile solubility test, serological typing of bacteria

    Treatment: penicillin, fluoroquinolones

    Prevention: Pneomococcal vaccine 
  22. Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia
    • -Gram-negative coccobacillus
    • -predisposing factors: alcoholism, poor nutrition, cancer, or diabetes
    • -Symptoms: Resemble those of pneumococcal pneumonia
    • -Diagnosis: Isolation, special media for nutritonal requirements

    -Treatment: cephalosporins  
  23. Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
    -Primary atypical pneumonia; walking pneumonia

    -Mycoplasma pneumoniae; pleomorphic wall-less bacteria

    -Common in children and young adults 
  24. Mycoplasma Pneumonia

    -Symptoms:
    -Diagnosis
    -Treatment: 
    Symptoms: mild but persistent respiratory symptoms; low fever, cough, headache

    Diagnosis: PCR and serological testing

    Treatment: Tetracyclines  
  25. Legionellosis

     
    -Legionella pneumophila: gram-negative rod

    • -found in water
    • -transmitted by inhaling aerosols; not transmitted from human to human 
  26. Legionellosis

    Symptoms
    Diagnosis
    Treatment
     
    Symptoms: potentially fatal pneumonia that tends to affect older men who drink or smoke heavily

    Diagnosis: Culture on selective media, DNA probe

    Treatment: Erythromycin  
  27. Chlamydial Pneumonia
    -Chlamydophila pneumoniae

    -transmitted from human to human 
  28. Chlamydial Pneumonia

    Symptoms
    Diagnosis
    treatment 
    Symptoms: Mild respiratory illness common in young people; resembles mycoplasmal pneumonia

    Diagnosis: serological tests

    • Treatment: tetracyclines
    •  
  29. Q Fever

    Causative agent

    Reservoir 
    Causative agent: Coxiella burnetii

    • Reservoir: Large mammals
    • -Tick vector
    • -can be transmitted via unpasteurized milk 
  30. Q Fever

    Symptoms
    Diagnosis
    Treatment 
    Symptoms: Mild respiratory disease lasting 1-2 weeks; occasional complications such as endocarditis occur

    Diagnosis: Growth in cell culture

    Treatment: Doxycycline and Chloroquine 
  31. Viral Pneumonia

     
    Viral Pneumonia: occurs as a complication of influenza, measles, or chickenpox

    Viral etiology suspected if no other cause is determined 
  32. Respiratory Syncytial Virus   (RSV) 
    • Common in infants; 4500 deaths annually
    • -causes cell fusion (syncytium) in cell culture
    • -Symptoms: pneumonia in infants
    • -Diagnosis: serological test for viruses and antibodiess
    • -treatment: Ribavirin, palivizumab 
  33. Influenza (flu) 

    Symptoms:
    treatment:
    Prophylaxis: 
    • Symptoms: chills, fever, headache, and muscle aches
    •      -NO INTESTINAL SYMPTOMS

    -1% mortality, very young and very old

    -Treatment: Zanamivir and oseltamivir inhibit neuraminidase

    Prophylaxis: multivalent vaccine 
  34. Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    Causitive agent:
    Reservoir:
    Symptoms:
    Diagnosis:
    Treatment:  
    Causative agent: Pneumocystis jirovecii

    Reservoir: unknown, possibly humans or soi

    Symptoms: pneumonia

    Diagnosis: Microscopy

    treatment: Trimethoprim  
  35. Other Fungi involved in Respiratory Disease

     
    • -Systemic
    • -prediposing factors:
    •      :immunocompromised state
    •      :cancer
    •      :diabetes
    • -Aspergillus fumigatus
    • -Mucor
    • -Rhizopus 
  36. The Influenza virus

    HA
    Hemagglutinin (HA) spikes used for attachment to host cells 
  37. The Influenza virus

    NA 
    Neuraminidase (NA) spikes used to release virus from cell 
  38. The influenza virus

    Antigenic Shift
     
    • -Changes in HA and NA spikes
    • -probably due to genetic recombination between differernt strains infecting the same cell  
  39. The influenza virus

    Antigenic Drift  
    • -Point mutations in genes encoding HA or NA spikes
    • -May involve only 1 amino acid
    • -Allows virus to avoid mucosal IfA antibodies  
  40. Histoplasmosis
    -Histoplasma capsulatum, dimorphic fungus, flu like symptoms 

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