CH 10: Part II

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CH 10: Part II
2012-07-10 22:59:53
Nervous System

Nervous System
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  1. cerebraospinal fluid (CSF)
    fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  2. spinal cord
    column of nervous tissue, nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
  3. meninges
    • three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
    • dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
  4. peripheral nervous system
    • nerves that branch from the CNS-crainal nerves and spinal nerves
    • cranial nerves: 12 pairs
    • spinal nerves: 31 pairs
  5. sensory nerves (afferent)
    nerves conducting impulses from body parts to the brain
  6. motor nerves (efferent)
    nerves conducting impulses from the brain to muscles
  7. Autonomic nervous system
    involuntary-smooth & cardiac muscle + glands
  8. hypothalamus
    control center for the ANS
  9. sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
    • both part of ANS
    • sympathetic: fight or flight
    • parasympathetic: rest and digest
  10. aphasia
    without speech
  11. dysphasia
    difficulty speaking
  12. dysarthria
    difficulty articulating-incoordination of motor (muscle) speech
  13. coma
    decreased consciousness
  14. delirium
    • mental confusion, disturbances of cerebral function
    • from: fever, shock, OD, etc.
  15. dementia
    • impariment of intellectual function
    • memory loss, disorientation, confusion
  16. motor deficit
    loss/impairment of muscle function
  17. sensory deficit
    loss/impairment of sensation
  18. neuralgia
    pain along a nerve
  19. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of motor control
  20. flaccid paralysis
    flabby, defective, absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
  21. spastic paralysis
    stiff and awkward muscle control caused by central nervous system disorder
  22. hemiparesis
    partial paralysis of the Right or Left half of the body
  23. sciatica
    pain that follows the pathway of a sciatic nerve
  24. seizure
    sudden disturbance of brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses
  25. convulsion
    to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
  26. syncope
  27. hyperesthesia
    increased sensitivity, ex: to touch or pain
  28. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation of numbness/tingling without cause
  29. agnosia
    loss of neruological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
  30. Alzheimer disease
    • disease of structural changes in the brain
    • forgetfullness, disorientation, loss of intellectual function, death
  31. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    • deterioration of motor nerve cells leading to total loss of voluntary muscle control.
    • Lou Gehrig disease
  32. cerebral palsy
    • motor dysfunction due to damage of the cerebrum during development/birth injury
    • characteristics: partial paralysis & lack of muscle coordination
  33. cerebrovascular disease
    disorder-change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
  34. cerebral arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries of the brain
  35. cerebral atherosclerosis
    fatty plaque buildup within the vessels of the brain
  36. cerebral aneurysm
    dilation of blood vessels in the brain
  37. cerebral thrombosis
    having a stationary blood clot in a vessel of the brain
  38. cerebral embolism
    obstruction of a blood vessel int eh brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
  39. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    • stroke
    • damage to the brain caused by a cerebrovascular disease-embolus, hemorrhage...
  40. transient ischemic attach (TIA)
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain-caused by partial occlusion
  41. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  42. epilepsy
    recurrent seizures, affecting CNS
  43. tonic-clonic
    • type of epilepsy
    • stiffening-jerking-a MAJOR motor seizue (aka grand mal)
  44. glioma
    tumor of glial cells
  45. herniated disk
    protrusion of intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes-compressing root
  46. herpes zoster
    • viral disease, shingles
    • affects peripheral nerves, causing painful blisters