Chem. Ch 22
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Chem. Ch 22
Chem. Ch 22
What are the 2 types of metabolism?
Catabolic and Anabolic
Metabolism involves what reaction that breaks down large, complex molecules to provide energy and smaller molecules?
Metabolism involves what reaction that use ATP energy to build large molecules?
What are the 3 stages in catabolic reactions?
Digestion and hydrolysis, degradation, and oxidation
In catabolic reactions, what breaks down large molecules to smaller ones that enter the bloodstream?
Digestion and Hydrolysis
In catabolic reactions, what breaks down molecules to two- and three- carbon compounds?
In catabolic reactions, what happens to small molecules in the citric acid cycle and electron transport that provide ATP energy?
What is the energy form stored in cells?
Where does ATP come from?
The oxidation of food
ATP consists of what?
Adenine (nitrogen base), a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups
What requires 7.3 (31 kJ) per mole to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?
The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP releases ____kcal, which is ___kJ/mole.
The hydrolysis of ADP to AMP release ____kcal, which is ___kJ/mole.
Muscle fibers contain what 2 protein fibers?
Actin and Myosin
Muscle fibers contract (slide closer together) when what?
A nerve impulse increases Ca2+
Where does muscle fibers obtain the energy for contraction?
Hydrolysis of ATP
Muscle fibers return to the relaxed position as what decreases?
ATP and Ca2+
Stage 1 digestion of carbs begins where and with what?
In the mouth with amylase
Stage 1 digestion of carbs begins in the mouth where salivary amylase breaks down polysaccharides to smaller polysaccharides ( _____ ), maltose, and some glucose.
Stage 1 digestion of carbs continues in the small intestine where pancreatic amylase hydrolyzes dextrins to _____ and _____.
Maltose and glucose
Stage 1 digestion of carbs hydrolyzes maltose, lactose, and sucrose to monosaccharides, mostly _____, which enter the bloodstream for transport to the cells.
What is Stage 2 glycolysis?
It’s a metabolic pathway that uses glucose, a digestion product
Stage 2 glycolysis degrades 6-carbon glucose molecules in to what?
3 carbon pyruvate molecules
Stage 2 glycolysis is an (aerobic or anaerobic) process.
In reactions 1-5 of glycolysis, energy is required to do what?
Add phosphate groups to glucose
In reactions 1-5 of glycolysis, glucose is converted into what?
Two 3-carbon molecules
In reactions 6-10 of glycolysis, energy is generates as what & how many ATP are produced?
As sugar phosphate are cleaved to triose phosphate, producing 4 ATP
In glycolysis, how many ATP are used to add phosphates to glucose and fructose-6-phosphate.
In glycolysis, how many ATP are formed in energy-generation by direct transfer of phosphate groups to four ADP.
In glycolysis, there is a net gain of how many ATP and NADH?
2 ATP and 2 NADH
Glycolysis is regulated by what 3 enzymes?
Hexokinase, Phosphofructokinase, and Pyruvate kinase
Glycolysis is regulated by 3 enzymes. In reaction 1, what is inhibited by high levels of glucose-6-phosphate, which prevents the phosphorylation of glucose?
Glycolysis is regulated by 3 enzymes. In reaction 3, what is an allosteric enzyme that is inhibited by high levels of ATO and activated by high levels of ADP and AMP?
Glycolysis is regulated by 3 enzymes. In reaction 10, what is another allosteric enzyme that inhibited by high levels of ATP or acetyl CoA?