Chem. Ch 22

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
16204
Filename:
Chem. Ch 22
Updated:
2010-04-26 00:38:40
Tags:
Chem
Folders:

Description:
Chem. Ch 22
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are the 2 types of metabolism?
    Catabolic and Anabolic
  2. Metabolism involves what reaction that breaks down large, complex molecules to provide energy and smaller molecules?
    Catabolic reactions
  3. Metabolism involves what reaction that use ATP energy to build large molecules?
    Anabolic reactions
  4. What are the 3 stages in catabolic reactions?
    Digestion and hydrolysis, degradation, and oxidation
  5. In catabolic reactions, what breaks down large molecules to smaller ones that enter the bloodstream?
    Digestion and Hydrolysis
  6. In catabolic reactions, what breaks down molecules to two- and three- carbon compounds?
    Degradation
  7. In catabolic reactions, what happens to small molecules in the citric acid cycle and electron transport that provide ATP energy?
    Oxidation
  8. What is the energy form stored in cells?
    ATP
  9. Where does ATP come from?
    The oxidation of food
  10. ATP consists of what?
    Adenine (nitrogen base), a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups
  11. What requires 7.3 (31 kJ) per mole to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?
    ATP
  12. The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP releases ____kcal, which is ___kJ/mole.
    7.3kcal; 31kJ
  13. The hydrolysis of ADP to AMP release ____kcal, which is ___kJ/mole.
    7.3kcal; 31kJ
  14. Muscle fibers contain what 2 protein fibers?
    Actin and Myosin
  15. Muscle fibers contract (slide closer together) when what?
    A nerve impulse increases Ca2+
  16. Where does muscle fibers obtain the energy for contraction?
    Hydrolysis of ATP
  17. Muscle fibers return to the relaxed position as what decreases?
    ATP and Ca2+
  18. Stage 1 digestion of carbs begins where and with what?
    In the mouth with amylase
  19. Stage 1 digestion of carbs begins in the mouth where salivary amylase breaks down polysaccharides to smaller polysaccharides ( _____ ), maltose, and some glucose.
    Dextrins
  20. Stage 1 digestion of carbs continues in the small intestine where pancreatic amylase hydrolyzes dextrins to _____ and _____.
    Maltose and glucose
  21. Stage 1 digestion of carbs hydrolyzes maltose, lactose, and sucrose to monosaccharides, mostly _____, which enter the bloodstream for transport to the cells.
    Glucose
  22. What is Stage 2 glycolysis?
    It’s a metabolic pathway that uses glucose, a digestion product
  23. Stage 2 glycolysis degrades 6-carbon glucose molecules in to what?
    3 carbon pyruvate molecules
  24. Stage 2 glycolysis is an (aerobic or anaerobic) process.
    Anaerobic
  25. In reactions 1-5 of glycolysis, energy is required to do what?
    Add phosphate groups to glucose
  26. In reactions 1-5 of glycolysis, glucose is converted into what?
    Two 3-carbon molecules
  27. In reactions 6-10 of glycolysis, energy is generates as what & how many ATP are produced?
    As sugar phosphate are cleaved to triose phosphate, producing 4 ATP
  28. In glycolysis, how many ATP are used to add phosphates to glucose and fructose-6-phosphate.
    2
  29. In glycolysis, how many ATP are formed in energy-generation by direct transfer of phosphate groups to four ADP.
    4
  30. In glycolysis, there is a net gain of how many ATP and NADH?
    2 ATP and 2 NADH
  31. Glycolysis is regulated by what 3 enzymes?
    Hexokinase, Phosphofructokinase, and Pyruvate kinase
  32. Glycolysis is regulated by 3 enzymes. In reaction 1, what is inhibited by high levels of glucose-6-phosphate, which prevents the phosphorylation of glucose?
    Hexokinase
  33. Glycolysis is regulated by 3 enzymes. In reaction 3, what is an allosteric enzyme that is inhibited by high levels of ATO and activated by high levels of ADP and AMP?
    Phosphofructokinase
  34. Glycolysis is regulated by 3 enzymes. In reaction 10, what is another allosteric enzyme that inhibited by high levels of ATP or acetyl CoA?
    Pyruvate kinase

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview