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Which two hormones are produced in the posterior pituitary gland?
Vasopressin and oxytocin
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Vasopressin
- Stimulus: High blood osmolarity, low BV, low BP, or ANGII
- Response: Increased reabsorption of H2O due to increased aquaporins in distal tubule; less urine production
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Oxytocin
- Stimulus: Cervical stretch in from baby's head
- Function: Causes smooth muscle contraction of uterus, pushing baby further into birth canal.
- POSITIVE FEEDBACK
What is the second stimulus and function for Oxytocin?
- Stimulus: Increased suckling of the breast
- Response: Increase milk let-down
- POSITIVE FEEDBACK
Trophic hormones secreted by hypothalamus only travel through the ______________ portal system to the (anterior/posterior) pituitary gland.
- hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
- anterior pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary Hormones get secreted into _____ that go into _________.
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Prolactin
- Stimulus: Increased breat suckling
- Function: Breast milk production
- POSITIVE FEEDBACK
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Growth Hormone (GH)
- Stimulus: Circadian rythm
- Function: Controls growth (duh!)
Hyposecretion of GH before puberty causes one type of :
Hypersecretion of GH before puberty causes one type of:
Gigantism (growth in length and diameter)
Hypersecretion of GH after puberty causes:
Acromegaly (growth in diameter of bones)
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Corticotrophin
- Stimulus: Circadian rythm & STRESS!
- Response: Production of Cortisol
How does the body respond to cortisol?
- Glucose sparing keeps glucose high in the blood
- Supress inflamation
- Protien catabolism (for more gluconeogenesis)
- Lipolysis (for more energy)
- Reduce Ca++ from the body
- Alter neuron activity ("roid rage")
Cortisol hypersecretion causes what syndome?
Cushing's syndrome (moon face, weak abdominal muscles, poor hair growth, high BP)
Cortisol hyposecretion causes what disease?
Addison’s Disease (symptoms: fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, sweating, changes in mood & personality, joint & muscle pains, low BP)
Cortisol is said to have a permissive effect on what molecule?
Give the stimulus & function for the following molecule: Glucogon
- Stimulus: Decrease in plasma glucose
- Response: Causes the liver to preform glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and produce ketones.
What three types of hormones are produced in the Adrenal cortex?
- Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
- Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
- Sex Hormones:
What are the two sex hormones produced in the adrenal cortex?
- Androgen (testosterone)
- Estrogen & progesterone
Give the main effect of the following hormone: Androgen
Main effect: Sex drive in females
What hormones are produced in the Adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine &Norepinephrine (adrenaline)
What is used to make the hormones in the Adrenal cortex?
- All are very similar in structure
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Aldosterone
- Stimulus: Drop in BP/BV without increase in blood osmolarity
- Response: distal nephrons insert more Na+ pumps, so increases Na+ & water reabsorption into peritubular capillary blood & decrease urine output.
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Thyrotropin (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone aka TSH)
- Stimulus: tonically throughout the day
- Function: secretes T3 and T4 (Thyroxin)
Hypersecretion of TSH from Anterior Pituitary causes:
An enlarged thyroid called a goiter
Inside the _____ of the thyroid follicle, ____ ions added to tyrosine to make ________.
colloid; iodine; T3 and T4 (thyroxine)
What are the responses to T3 and T4 (Thyroxin)?
- In children, necessary for normal growth and nervous system development
- Normal response to heat or cool
- Increase metabolic rate and activities of all cells
T3 and T4 Hypersecretion in the tyroid causes:
- Grave's disease: the body produces TSI that mimics TSH, which results in a Goiter.
- Often accompanied by exophalmus (fat deposits behind eyeballs)
Goiter's can also be cause due to a lack of ______.
Iodine, which is needed to produce T3 & T4
Hyposecretion of T3 & T4 causes _____ in adults.
- Myxedema (in adults)
- Slows metabolic rate = weight gain, Intolerant to cold, Brittle nails, poor hair, dry and thin skin, mucopolysaccharides under skin cause bags under eyes, slowed mental activity, bradycardia
Hyposecretion of T3 & T4 causes ______ in infants.
Creatinism: Mental retardation & poor growth of bones and tissues
(Follicular cells/C-cells) secrete T3 and T4.
(Follicular cells/C-cells) secrete calcitonin.
- Follicular cells secrete T3 & T4
- C-cells secrete calcitonin
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Calcitonin (thyroid hormone)
- Stimulus: plasma Ca++ increases
- Response: plasma Ca++ drops but little effect on adult
- **Not under control of Anterior pituitary gland; responds to changes in blood calcium levels**
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Parathyroid hormone
- Stimulus: low plasma Ca++ levels
- Response: 1. Stimulates Vit D3 (calcitriol) activation so more Ca++ can be absorbed from intestinal tract. 2. Increases distal nephron reabsorption of Ca++ into peritubular capllary blood so decreases urine loss.
In adults, (parathyroid hormone/calcitonin) is much more important for control of Ca++ homeostasis than is (parathyroid hormone/calcitonin).
Parathyroid hormone; calcitonin