Cortisol is said to have a permissive effect on what molecule?
Give the stimulus & function for the following molecule: Glucogon
Stimulus: Decrease in plasma glucose
Response: Causes the liver to preform glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and produce ketones.
What three types of hormones are produced in the Adrenal cortex?
What are the two sex hormones produced in the adrenal cortex?
Estrogen & progesterone
Give the main effect of the following hormone: Androgen
Main effect: Sex drive in females
What hormones are produced in the Adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine &Norepinephrine (adrenaline)
What is used to make the hormones in the Adrenal cortex?
All are very similar in structure
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Aldosterone
Stimulus: Drop in BP/BV without increase in blood osmolarity
Response: distal nephrons insert more Na+ pumps, so increases Na+ & water reabsorption into peritubular capillary blood & decrease urine output.
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Thyrotropin (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone aka TSH)
Stimulus: tonically throughout the day
Function: secretes T3 and T4 (Thyroxin)
Hypersecretion of TSH from Anterior Pituitary causes:
An enlarged thyroid called a goiter
Inside the _____ of the thyroid follicle, ____ ions added to tyrosine to make ________.
colloid; iodine; T3 and T4 (thyroxine)
What are the responses to T3 and T4 (Thyroxin)?
In children, necessary for normal growth and nervous system development
Normal response to heat or cool
Increase metabolic rate and activities of all cells
T3 and T4 Hypersecretion in the tyroid causes:
Grave's disease: the body produces TSI that mimics TSH, which results in a Goiter.
Often accompanied by exophalmus (fat deposits behind eyeballs)
Goiter's can also be cause due to a lack of ______.
Iodine, which is needed to produce T3 & T4
Hyposecretion of T3 & T4 causes _____ in adults.
Myxedema (in adults)
Slows metabolic rate = weight gain, Intolerant to cold, Brittle nails, poor hair, dry and thin skin, mucopolysaccharides under skin cause bags under eyes, slowed mental activity, bradycardia
Hyposecretion of T3 & T4 causes ______ in infants.
Creatinism: Mental retardation & poor growth of bones and tissues
(Follicular cells/C-cells) secrete T3 and T4.
(Follicular cells/C-cells) secrete calcitonin.
Follicular cells secrete T3 & T4
C-cells secrete calcitonin
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Calcitonin (thyroid hormone)
Stimulus: plasma Ca++ increases
Response: plasma Ca++ drops but little effect on adult
**Not under control of Anterior pituitary gland; responds to changes in blood calcium levels**
Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Parathyroid hormone
Stimulus: low plasma Ca++ levels
Response: 1. Stimulates Vit D3 (calcitriol) activation so more Ca++ can be absorbed from intestinal tract. 2. Increases distal nephron reabsorption of Ca++ into peritubular capllary blood so decreases urine loss.
In adults, (parathyroid hormone/calcitonin) is much more important for control of Ca++ homeostasis than is (parathyroid hormone/calcitonin).