Endocrine System & Hormones

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Endocrine System & Hormones
2012-07-10 23:38:05
Physiology Dr Allen Hormones

Basic hormones from the Endocrine System
Show Answers:

  1. Which two hormones are produced in the posterior pituitary gland?
    Vasopressin and oxytocin
  2. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Vasopressin
    • Stimulus: High blood osmolarity, low BV, low BP, or ANGII
    • Response: Increased reabsorption of H2O due to increased aquaporins in distal tubule; less urine production 
  3. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Oxytocin
    • Stimulus: Cervical stretch in from baby's head
    • Function: Causes smooth muscle contraction of uterus, pushing baby further into birth canal.
  4. What is the second stimulus and function for Oxytocin?
    • Stimulus: Increased suckling of the breast
    • Response: Increase milk let-down
  5. Trophic hormones secreted by hypothalamus only travel through the ______________ portal system to the (anterior/posterior) pituitary gland. 
    • hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
    • anterior pituitary gland
  6. Anterior Pituitary Hormones get secreted into _____ that go into _________.
    • Veins
    • Normal Circulation 
  7. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Prolactin
    • Stimulus: Increased breat suckling
    • Function: Breast milk production
  8. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Stimulus: Circadian rythm
    • Function: Controls growth (duh!)
  9. Hyposecretion of GH before puberty causes one type of :
  10. Hypersecretion of GH before puberty causes one type of:
    Gigantism (growth in length and diameter)
  11. Hypersecretion of GH after puberty causes:
    Acromegaly (growth in diameter of bones)
  12. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Corticotrophin
    • Stimulus: Circadian rythm & STRESS!
    • Response: Production of Cortisol
  13. How does the body respond to cortisol?
    • Glucose sparing keeps glucose high in the blood
    • Supress inflamation
    • Protien catabolism (for more gluconeogenesis)
    • Lipolysis (for more energy)
    • Reduce Ca++ from the body 
    • Alter neuron activity ("roid rage")
  14. Cortisol hypersecretion causes what syndome?
    Cushing's syndrome (moon face, weak abdominal muscles, poor hair growth, high BP)
  15. Cortisol hyposecretion causes what disease? 
    Addison’s Disease (symptoms: fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, sweating, changes in mood & personality, joint & muscle pains, low BP)
  16. Cortisol is said to have a permissive effect on what molecule?
  17. Give the stimulus & function for the following molecule: Glucogon
    • Stimulus: Decrease in plasma glucose
    • Response: Causes the liver to preform glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and produce ketones.
  18. What three types of hormones are produced in the Adrenal cortex?
    • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
    • Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • Sex Hormones:
  19. What are the two sex hormones produced in the adrenal cortex?
    • Androgen (testosterone)
    • Estrogen & progesterone
  20. Give the main effect of the following hormone: Androgen
    Main effect: Sex drive in females
  21. What hormones are produced in the Adrenal medulla?
    Epinephrine &Norepinephrine (adrenaline)
  22. What is used to make the hormones in the Adrenal cortex?
    • Cholesterol
    • All are very similar in structure
  23. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Aldosterone
    • Stimulus: Drop in BP/BV without increase in blood osmolarity
    • Response:  distal nephrons insert more Na+ pumps, so increases Na+ & water reabsorption into peritubular capillary blood & decrease urine output.
  24. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Thyrotropin (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone aka TSH)
    • Stimulus: tonically throughout the day
    • Function:  secretes T3 and T4 (Thyroxin)
  25. Hypersecretion of TSH from Anterior Pituitary causes:
    An enlarged thyroid called a goiter
  26. Inside the _____ of the thyroid follicle, ____ ions added to tyrosine to make ________.
    colloid;  iodine; T3 and T4 (thyroxine)
  27. What are the responses to T3 and T4 (Thyroxin)?
    • In children, necessary for normal growth and nervous system development
    • Normal response to heat or cool
    • Increase metabolic rate and activities of all cells 
  28. T3 and T4 Hypersecretion in the tyroid causes: 
    • Grave's disease: the body produces TSI that mimics TSH, which results in a Goiter.
    • Often accompanied by exophalmus (fat deposits behind eyeballs)

  29. Goiter's can also be cause due to a lack of ______.
    Iodine, which is needed to produce T3 & T4 
  30. Hyposecretion of T3 & T4 causes _____ in adults.
    • Myxedema (in adults)
    • Slows metabolic rate = weight gain, Intolerant to cold, Brittle nails, poor hair, dry and thin skin, mucopolysaccharides under skin cause bags under eyes, slowed mental activity, bradycardia
  31. Hyposecretion of T3 & T4 causes ______ in infants.
    Creatinism: Mental retardation & poor growth of bones and tissues
  32. (Follicular cells/C-cells) secrete T3 and T4.
    (Follicular cells/C-cells) secrete calcitonin.
    • Follicular cells secrete T3 & T4
    • C-cells secrete calcitonin 
  33. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Calcitonin (thyroid hormone)
    • Stimulus: plasma Ca++ increases
    • Response: plasma Ca++ drops but little effect on adult
    • **Not under control of Anterior pituitary gland; responds to changes in blood calcium levels**
  34. Give the stimulus & function for the following hormone: Parathyroid hormone
    • Stimulus: low plasma Ca++ levels
    • Response: 1. Stimulates Vit D3 (calcitriol) activation so more Ca++ can be absorbed from intestinal tract. 2. Increases distal nephron reabsorption of Ca++ into peritubular capllary blood so decreases urine loss.
  35. In adults, (parathyroid hormone/calcitonin) is much more important for control of Ca++ homeostasis than is (parathyroid hormone/calcitonin).
    Parathyroid hormone; calcitonin