Anesthesia tst 1

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Anesthesia tst 1
2012-07-12 11:44:41

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  1. Anesthesia
    • -a loss of sensation, especially to pain
    • -acheived by the admin. of anesthetic drug
  2. 3 types of anesthesia
    • local
    • regional
    • general
  3. Local anesthesia
    • -loss of sensation confiened to a small or limited part of the body
    • -animal does not become unconscious
  4. Regional Anesthesia
    loss of sensation affecting an area or region of the the body
  5. General Anesthesia
    loss of sensation and consciousness of the pt
  6. 2 types of local anesthesia
    • Topical
    • injectable
  7. Topical local An.
    • applied to a MM area of the body
    • -prevent laryngeal spasms
    • -post op on incision site
    • -eye exams
  8. Injectable local An.
    • Parenteral admin Sq to block transmission of nerve impulses to that area
    • skin biopsy
    • laceration repairs
    • sm. tumor removals
  9. Advantages of local anesthesia
    • -decrease in pt toxicity
    • -cheaper
    • -min. recovery for the pt
    • -provides analagesia
    • -ideal for high risk pts
    • -less required equipment
  10. Disadvantages of local An.
    • -pt restraint
    • -requires concise placement for medication
    • -no control of drug once injected
  11. most common local anesthetics
    • Lidocaine-xylocaine
    • bupiuicaine-marcaine
    • meplvicaine-carbocaine
    • procain-novocaine
    • tetracaine-tritop ointment
  12. mostcomal types of regional Anesthesia
    • epidural-injected between L7 & Sacrum  provides analgesia for utp to 24 hrs
    • paralumbar nerve block- injected along side of spinal cord, anesthetizes abdomen for c-section in cattle
  13. two was of acheiving general anesthesia (GA)
    • injectables-iv or im is possible
    • inhalants via mask, intubation, chamber

    usually used together
  14. what are the 4 components of GA
    • Pre-anesthesia (PA)
    • induction
    • maintenance
    • recovery
  15. Pre-anesthesia
    • pd of time immdiatly preceding induction in which you prepare yourself and pt for the procedure
    • -collect date, fast the pt (12hrs) check equip. , give PA drugs
  16. Induction
    • process by which an animal leaves the norm. conscous state and enters an unconcious state
    • acheived through the use of injectabe or inhalents
    • 5-10 mins max
  17. maintenance
    • pd following induction in which a stable level of anesthesia is acheived-also may be acheived by injectabe or inhalents
    • slight ^ in hr  and RR due to sx stim
  18. recovery
    pd of time follwoin the discontinuince of anestheics and when the pt is WNL
  19. Surgical anesthesia
    • general anesthesia which allows a sx procedure to be preformed w/o pain or mvmnt of the pt
    • stage III plane II
  20. Balance Anesthesia
    • Anesthesia utilizing a combo of drugs to acheive the desired effect while minimizing undesired effects
    • common belrea protocol glyco, ace, buprenorphine, propofol, isoflurane, rimadyl post op
  21. dissociative Anesthesia
    • produced by cyclohexamine  Anesthetics which interrupt the pathways to the brain, produce a cataleptic state (state of muscle rigidity)
    • ketamine, tiletamine are most common
  22. Analgesia
    • abesnce of a stimulus that wold nrom. produce pain,
    • admined preanestheticly-prevent wind up effect
    • intra and post op as well
  23. common analgesics
    • opiods-buprenorphine, fentanyl, butorphanol
    • Nsaids-carprophen, daracoxib, meloxicam
    • Local Anesthetics-lidocaine
  24. advantages of anagesics
    • provided better healing at incision site
    • pt is more comf
  25. true disadvantage of anagesics
    adverse effects resp. depression, heptotoxicity
  26. sedation
    • causes mild cns depression where the pt remains conscious but is calm
    • works on the cerebral cortex
    • provides anagesia
    • alpha-2 antagonist-metatomidine
  27. Tranquilization
    • causes mild cns depression where the pt remains conscious but is calm
    • works on the hypothalmus
    • phenothiazine, benzodiazephien, butyrophenos
  28. Neuroleptanalgesia
    analgesia produced bby the combo of an opiod and a tranq or sedative med

    buprenorphine & ace
  29. O2 tank
    full tank 2000-2200psi  or 600-660L
  30. Pressure Regulator
    ruduces the pressure from cpmpressed gas cylinders to a constant pressure of approx 45-50psi
  31. O2 flow meter
    delivers calculated o2 to the pt and reduces the pressure w/in the system to 12-15psi

    any flow <1L can be set by .5 L of liters
  32. precision vaporizer
    used with gases that have high vapor pressure
  33. non-precision vaporizer
    animals breathing moves o2 through vaporizer and volatizes gases
  34. Reservoir bag
    • Storage of gases entering the system, allows for observation of respiration rate & Depth
    • Allows for PPV (positive pressure ventilation)
  35. unidirection flutter valves
    prevent rebreathing exhaled gas which contains CO2
  36. inhalation unidirection flutter valve
    allows one way flow of gases to pt
  37. exhalation unidirection flutter valve
    allows gasses to reenter the anesthetic machine
  38. Scavenge
    Directs exhaled gases from pt and machine when gases are ion excess of pt requirements
  39. pressure releif valve (pop off)
    Allows gas to leave the system
  40. PPV
    • positive pressure ventilation
    • use to decrease co2 w/in pts body and prevent atelectisis
  41. CO2 absorber
    • remove co2 from the system
    • soda lime granules or barium hydroxide lime
    • 6-8hrs
  42. Pressure manometer
    measures the pressure of gases w/in the pt breathing system (lungs)
  43. negative pressure valve
    allow room are to enter circut
  44. oxygen flush valve
    bypasses flow meter and vaporizer to deliver 100% O2 to res. bag
  45. 4 steps to hookup rebreathing system
    • 1 hook up y tubing
    • 2 reservoir bag
    • 3scavange
    • 4check that pop off valve is open
  46. pressure checking system
    • 1 close pop off valve
    • 2 close end of y-tubing
    • 3 introduce pressure up to 20cmH2O
    • 4 wach for a drop in pressure <5 cmH2O 30s
    • 5 open pop off valve  b4 releasing Y tubing
  47. 4 steps to start anesthesia
    • 1 turn 02 flow meter on
    • 2 connect to pt et tube
    • 3 check pt vitals
    • 4 turn vaporizer on