Chem. Ch 23

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Chem. Ch 23
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2010-04-26 00:58:53
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Chem. Ch 23
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  1. The citric acid cycle operates under (aerobic or anaerobic) conditions only.
    Aerobic
  2. What cycle oxidizes the two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl CoA to 2 CO2?
    Citric Acid Cycle
  3. The citric acid cycle produces reduced coenzymes ____ and ____ and 1 ___ directly.
    NADH and FADH2; ATP
  4. In the citric acid cycle, acetyl (2 C) bonds to oxaloacetate (4 C) to form what?
    Citrate (6 C)
  5. In the citric acid cycle, oxidation and decarboxylation reactions convert citrate to what?
    Oxaloacetate
  6. In the citric acid cycle, oxalocetate bonds with another what to repeat the cycle?
    Acetyl
  7. What combines with the 2-carbon acetyl group to form citrate?
    Oxaloacetate
  8. Citrate isomerizes into what?
    Isocitrate
  9. True or False: Citrate has a tertiary –OH group converted to a secondary –OH in isocitrate that can’t be oxidized.
    False, it CAN be oxidized
  10. Isocitrate undergoes what that removes carbon in the form of CO2?
    Decarboxylation
  11. Isocitrate oxidizes the –OH to a _____ releasing H+ and 2 e-.
    Ketone
  12. Isocitrate provides H to reduce coenzyme NAD+ into what?
    NADH
  13. a-Ketoglutarate undergoes decarboxylation to form what?
    Succinyl CoA
  14. a-Ketoglutarate produces a 4-carbon compound that bond to what?
    CoA
  15. a-Ketoglutarate provides H+ and 2 e- to reduce what into NADH?
    NAD+
  16. Succinyl CoA undergoes hydrolysis what bond?
    The thioester bond
  17. What provides energy to add phosphate to GDP and form GTP because it’s a high-energy compound?
    Succinyl CoA
  18. Succinate under goes what to lose 2 hydrogens and form a double bond?
    Dehydrogenation
  19. Succinate provides 2 hydrogen to reduce FAD into what?
    FADH2
  20. True or False: Fumarate undergoes hydration to add water to the double bond.
    True
  21. Fumarate is converted into what?
    Malate
  22. Malate undergoes what to form oxaloacetate with a C=O double bond?
    Dehydrogenation
  23. Malate provides 2 hydrogen that reduce NAD+ into what?
    NADH + H+
  24. What cause the reaction rate for the citric acid cycle to increase?
    It increases when low levels of ATP and NAD+ activate isocitrate dehydrogenase
  25. What cause the reaction rate for the citric acid cycle to decrease?
    It decrease when high levels of ATP or NADH inhibit citrate synthetase (first step in cycle)
  26. What are oxidized and reduced as hydrogen and/or electrons are transferred from one carrier to the next?
    Electron carries
  27. What are 4 types of electron carriers?
    FMN, Fe-S clusters, Coenzyme Q, and cytochromes
  28. Electron carriers accept hydrogen and electrons from what?
    The reduced coenzymes
  29. Electron carries are oxidized and reduced to provide what?
    Energy for the synthesis of ATP
  30. FMN coenzyme contains what?
    Flavin, ribitol, and phosphate
  31. What accepts 2 H+ + 2 e- to form reduced coenzyme FMNH2?
    FMN coenzyme
  32. What are groups of proteins containing iron ions and sulfide?
    Fe-S clusters
  33. What accept electrons to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ , and lose electrons to re-oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+ ?
    Fe-S clusters
  34. Coenzyme Q (Q or CoQ) is a mobile electron carrier derived from what?
    Quinone
  35. Coenzyme Q (Q or CoQ) is reduced when what?
    The keto groups accept 2 H+ and 2 e-
  36. Cytochromes (cyt) are proteins containing what?
    Heme groups with iron ions
  37. What is the abbreviation for cytochromes?
    Cyt
  38. Electron transport uses what to transfer hydrogen ions and electrons from NADH and FADH2 until they combine with oxygen?
    Electron carries
  39. Electron transport forms what and produces what?
    Forms H2O and produces ATP energy
  40. In what system are electron carriers attached to the inner membrane of the mitochondrion?
    The electron transport system
  41. In the electron transport system, there are how many protein complexes?
    4
  42. In which NADH Dehydrogenase complex does hydrogen and electrons transfer from NADH to FMN, and then FMNH2 transfers hydrogen to Fe-S clusters and then to coenzyme Q reducing Q and regenerating FMN?
    Complex 1
  43. In Complex I of NADH Dehydrogenase, what is the overall reaction?
    QH2, a mobile carrier, transfer hydrogen to Complex III
  44. In Complex II of Succinate Dehydrogenase, there is a (higher or lower) energy level than Complex I.
    Lower
  45. In Complex II of Succinate Dehydrogenase, FADH2 transfers what to the coenzyme Q?
    Hydrogen and Electrons
  46. In Complex II of Succinate Dehydrogenase, Q is reduced into what and what is regenerated?
    Q is reduced to QH2 and FAD is regenerated
  47. What is QH2?
    A mobile carrier, that transfers hydrogen to Complex III
  48. In Complex III of CoQ-Cytochrome c Reducatase, electrons are transferred from QH2 to what?
    Two Cyt b
  49. In Complex III of CoQ-Cytochrome c Reducatse, each Cyt b (Fe3+) is reduced into what?
    Cyt b (Fe2+)
  50. In Complex III of CoQ-Cytochrome c Reducatase, what is regenerated?
    Q
  51. In which complex are electrons transferred from Cyt b to Fe-S clusters, to Cyt C1, and to Cyt c, the second mobile carrier?
    Complex III
  52. In Complex IV of Cytochrome c Oxidase, electrons are transferred from what --> to what --> to what?
    Cyt c to Cyt a --> Cyt a to Cyt a3 --> Cty a3 to oxygen and H+ to form water

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