Exam 6

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  1. Pathology
    Scientific study of disease
  2. Etiology
    Study of causitive agent of disease
  3. Epidemiology
    Science of when and where dieseases occur and how they are transmitted
  4. Microbial Antagonism=competitive Exclusion
    Good microbes protect body from bad microbes
  5. Probiotics
    food products with live cultures that are good for you
  6. Prebiotics
    short chain carbs (oligosaccharide) that feed probiotics
  7. Koch's Postulates
    • 1)The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.
    • 2)The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
    • 3)The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
    • 4)The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
  8. Exceptions to Koch's Postulates
    • Any disease that only affects humen
    • treponema pallidum (syphillus)
    • Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy)
    • HIV
    • Legionaires Disease
  9. Symptoms
    • changes in body function
    • subjuctive
  10. Signs
    • can be observed and measured
    • objective
  11. Syndrome
    a specific group of symptoms that always go with a disease no matter how the disease was contracted.
  12. Communicable
    Can be spread person to person
  13. Contagious
    easily spread from person to person
  14. Non-Communicable
  15. Sporadic
    a disease that comes around once in awhile (Typhoid Fever)
  16. Endemic
    common disease. Always occurs (cold)
  17. Epidemic
    Seasonal-comes around during certain times of year (flu)
  18. Pandemic
    Disease over the whole world
  19. Acute
    develops rapidly and lasts a short time
  20. Chronic
    develops slowly, less severe, lasts a longer time
  21. Subacute
    very slow, builds on itself over many years
  22. Latent
    stays dormant for many years before causing symptoms
  23. Herd Immunity
    If many people in a group have had a disease before, it protects those that havent because the disease is less likely to settle in that population
  24. Local
    one area (ex. skin infections)
  25. Systemic
    affects whole body
  26. Septicemia
    through entire blood stream
  27. Primary Infection
    acute infection that causes initial illness
  28. Secondary Infection
    oppurtunstic infection that takes advantage of lower immune system due to primary infection
  29. Subclincial
    under the radar disease, doesnt cause noticible illness
  30. Predisposing Factors
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Other Illnesses
    • Weather
    • Ethnicity
    • Malnutrition
    • Environment
    • Lifestyle
    • Medications
    • Fatigue
    • Occupation
    • Emotional Disturbance
  31. Reserviors of Infection
    human, animal, nonliving
  32. Viral Zoonoses Examples
    • West Nile
    • Rabies
    • Some Flus
  33. Bacterial Zoonoses Examples
    • Lyme
    • Salmonellosis
    • Plague
    • Anthrax
  34. Protozoan Zoonoses Examples
    • Malaria
    • Toxoplasmosis
  35. Fungal Zoonoses Examples
  36. Helmiths Zoonoses Examples
    • tapeworm
    • trichinoella
  37. Vehicle
    transmission by medium (water, air or food)
  38. Vector
    Mechanical Entry (houseflies landing on feces then food)


    Biological Entry (insect bites)
  39. Nosocomial Infections
    • Hospital Acquired Infections
    • 2 million per year, usually elderly
    • 5-15% of all diseases
    • Most common is UTI
  40. CDC
    center for disease control
  41. Emerging infections Disease
    • New strains that are more virulent
    • H5N1
    • Vibrio Cholorea 0139
    • re-emergence of old diseases
  42. Descriptive Epidemiology
    Collecting all data about occurance of disease
  43. Analytical Epidemiology
    done by computer statistical analysis
  44. Experimental Epidemiology
    Develop a hypothosis about disease and preform an experiment
  45. Case Reporting
    Provides data about occurence/incidence/prevelance of disease to state officials
  46. Portals of Entry
    • How bacteria get into body
    • Skin
    • Mucous Membranes
    • Parentenal: any punctures (bites, cuts, wounds, surgery)
    • Breathing/air
    • GI
  47. Parentenal
    any puncture
  48. ID50
    the infectious dose for 50% of population
  49. LD50
    Lethal dose for 50% of population
  50. Adherence
    Some pathogens need to adhere to host (ie. Urinary tract infections

    • Use:
    •    -adhesins and ligands
    •    -biofilms
  51. Capsules
    polysaccharide material that microbe produces to hide antigens causing slower immune response
  52. M Proteins
    Allows S. Pyogenes to attach to epithelial cells. Located in cell wall
  53. Fimbrae
    hairlike proteins used for attachment
  54. Enzymes' role in penetrating hosts' defenses
    break down tissues to allow microbe to move
  55. Collangenase
    breaks down cartilage
  56. Kinase
  57. Coagulases
    breaks down blood clots
  58. Hyaluranidase
    breaks down connective tissue
  59. Antigenic Variation
    Diseases that change their antigens every year so it is impossible to create treatments or vaccines.

    • Ex:
    •   -flu
    •   -HIV
    •   -gonnorrhea
    •   -African Sleeping Sickness
  60. Siderophores
    Molecules that pick up iron in blood and deliver it to bacteria
  61. Direct Damage
    Bacteria living and growing in cell hurts host cell
  62. Indirect Damage
  63. Exotoxins
    • Gram +
    • Usually protein
    • Heat Unstable

    Toxin is either excreted out of cell or is realeased when cell dies.

    B part allows it to bind to host cell and A part does damage
  64. 3 Types of Exotoxins
    • 1) Enterotoxins-GI
    • 2)Neurotoxins-nervous tissue
    • 3) Cytotoxins- cell death
  65. Endotoxins
    • Gram -
    • Lipopolysaccharide layer is part of cell wall
    • More virulent
    • Heat Stable
    • Usually lipids
    • Usually have fever and diarrhea
  66. Plasmids
    Small extrachromosal circular DNA that contain virulence genes.
  67. Lysogeny
    • Provirus
    • Viral DNA jumps into host DNA and cell replicates the DNA everytime it copies itself.
  68. Fever
    Gram negative bacteria is engulfed by phagocytotic cell

    Endotoxin layer excretes cytokine into blood stream

    cytokine reaches brain and hypothalmus

    Hypothalmus realeases prostaglandin

    Prostaglandin increases body temp

    Immune system works more efficiently at a higher temp
  69. Granulocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
  70. Neutrophil
    • phagocytosis
    • Granulocyte
  71. Basophil
    • produces histamine
    • Granulocyte
  72. Eosinophil
    • Releases toxins agains certain paracites
    • phagocytosis
    • granulocyte
  73. Agranulocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Dendritic
    • Lymphocytes
  74. Monocytes
    • Phagocytosis
    • Agranulocyte
  75. Dendritic
    • Phoagocytosis
    • initiation of adaptative immune response
    • Agranulocyte
  76. Lymphocytes

    • 3 Types:
    •  -B Cells
    •  -T Cells
    •  -Natural Killer Cells
  77. B Cell
    • Agranulocyte-Lymphocyte
    • Produces antibodies
  78. T Cell

    Cell-Mediated immunity
  79. Natural Killer Cell

    Destroys target cells by cytolysis and apoptosis
  80. Inflammation
    • Swelling/edema
    • vasodialation
    • more WBC's migrate in
    • blood clotting
    • histamine and other prostaglandins enter area
  81. The complement system
    • 9 dormant plasma proteins
    • Activation of proteins leads to 5 step cascade.
  82. Classical Pathway
    Image Upload
  83. Alternative Pathway
    Image Upload
  84. Lectin Pathway
    Image Upload
  85. Innate Immunity
    • defenses that are present at birth
    • first and second lines of defense 
  86. Adaptive Immunity
    specific for individual pathogens (T and B lymphocytes)
  87. Toll Like Receptors (TLRs)
    part of phagocyte that binds to PAMPS
  88. PAMPS
    part of bacterial cell wall made of peptidoglycan
  89. First line of defense
    • skin
    • mucous membrane
    • saliva
    • persperation
    • gastric juice
    • vaginal secretions
    • urine
    • normal microbiota 
  90. 2nd line of defense
    White blood cells
  91. Complement Fixation Test
    Put patients serum, sheep RBCs and sheep antibodies in a mixture

    • Normal: Hemolysis
    • Abnormal: No hemolysis 
  92. Interferons
    antiviral proteins
  93. Iron Binding Proteins
    Iron stimulates pathogens so proteins bind to free iron to make it unavailble to pathogens
  94. Antimicrobial peptides
    • short antimicrobial proteins
    • amps
    • over 600 of them 
  95. Incidence
    the fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a particular peroid of time
  96. Prevalence
    # of people who have a disease at a specific time (old and new cases)
  97. Direct Contact Transmission
    a method of spreading infection from one host to another through some kind of close association between hosts
  98. Indirect Contact Transmission
    the spread of pathogens by fomites (nonliving objects)
  99. Four facts which characterize viruses
    • 1 Contain a single type of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
    • 2) All contain protein coat, some contain an envelope 
    • 3) Only can mulitply inside living creatures using macheinery of host
    • 4) Cause synthesis of specialized structures which allow viruses to transfer nucleic acid to new host cells 
  100. Viruses vs. Bacteria
    • no plasma membrane
    • no binary fission
    • pass through membrane filter
    • cannot generate ATP
    • no ribosomes
    • not sensitive to antibiotics
    • are sensitive to interferons 
  101. Host species
    what viruses affect
  102. Viral Size
    20-100 nm (1/100 the average bacteria)
  103. Caspid
    Protein coat that surrounds DNA
  104. Envelope
  105. Viral Morphology
    • Helical
    • polyhedral (many triangular sides)
    • enveloped
    • Complex 
  106. Viral Taxonomy
    • 1) Is it DNA or RNA virus?
    • 2) Is it single or double stranded?
    • 3) Is it enveloped or not? 
  107. The Lytic Cycle 
    • Bacteriophages (as little as 20 mins)
    • 1) attachment
    • 2) penetration
    • 3) biosynthesis
    • 4) maturation
    • 5) release-cell bursts and exocytosis (bud off one at at time) 
  108. The Lysogenic Cycle
    Most animal virus

    • 1) ATtachment
    • 2) Penetration (whole virus is taken in by endovytosis)
    • 3) Viral DNA jumps into host DNA (prophage) everytime host cell reproduces it also copies viral DNA
    • 4) At one point viral DNA jumps out of host DNA and initiates the lytic cycle at biosynthesis 
Card Set:
Exam 6
2012-07-12 01:32:57

Chapters 13-16
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