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What Does the study of human development seek?
Seeks to understand how and why people (all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age) change over time
A. What is the ecological approach to the study of human development
B. Who developed this approach
A. The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interaction that consititue a life
B. Urie Bronfenbrenner
What are the 3 domains of development ?
What is Biosocial Development?
Biosocial Development includes all the growth and change that occur in a person's body and the genetic, nutritional, and health factors that affect that growth and change
Note: Motor skills are a part of this domain
What is Cognitive Development?
- Cognitive Development includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about the environment.
- Congition encompasses perception, imagination, judgement, memory and language - The processes people us to think, decide, and learn.
- Education not only the formal curriculum in schools as informal learningis part of this domain as well
What is Psychosocial Development?
Includes development of emothions, temperament, and social skills, Family, friends, the community, the culture, and the larger society are particulary central to the psychosocial domain. For example, cultural differences in "appropriate" Sex roles or in family structures are part of this domain
What is a Cohort?
A group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts at about the same age
What is a Theory?
Theories offer useful hypotheses
A. What is the Scientific Method? Pg 4
B. Why is it used to test Hypotheses? Pg 4 & 21
A. A way to answer questions that require empirical reasearch and data-based conclusions.
- B. It is a method for designing and conducting research that gathers emperical evidence that will either confirm or refute the hypothesis.
- The experiment should be designed to try to isolate the phenomenon and the proposed cause. It should be repoducable
What is a Hypothesis? Pg 4
A specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted
A. What is replication?
B. Why is it important?
A. The repetition of a study, using different participants
- B. Scientists are human, some prejudices lurk in what they decide to study, and how they study it.
- Being able to replicate the results of a study can allow it to be accepted by the scientific community
What is the Independent Varible?
In an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the Dependent Variable.
*Also called Experimental Varible
What is the Dependent Variable?
In an experiment, the variable that may change as the result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds.
In other words, the Dependent Variable depends on the Independent Variable.
What is the Experimental Group?
A group of participants in a Research Study who experience some special treatment or condition (the Independent Variable)
What is the Comparison/Control Group?
A group of participants in a Research Study who are similar to the experimental group in all relevant ways but who do not experience the experimental condition (the Independent Varible)
What is Longitudinal Research? How is it used?
A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
To study developments over an extended period of time
What is Psychoanalytic theory and who developed it
A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
It was developed by Sigmund Freud; stressing our unconscious motives and drives.
What are the stages of Psychosexual Development?
- Oral Stage (Birth to 1 Yr) - Lips, Tongue, & Gums
- Anal Stage (1-3) - Anus is focus of pleasure - potty training
- Phallic Stage (3-6) Penis is most important body part, Girls wonder why they don't have one
- Latency (6-11) Not a real stage: interlude sex needs are quiet
- Gential Stage (Adolescence) -Gentials are focus of pleasure - sexual stimulation & satisfaction
- Adulthood - Continuation of Gential Stage
Who is Erik Erikson?
An ego psychologist who studied with Anna Freud, Erikson expanded psychoanalytic theory by exploring development throughout the life, including events of childhood, adulthood, and old age.
A. What are Erikson's Stages of Development called?
What do they consist of?
A. Psycosocial Stages
B. Eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. He named two polarities at each stage.
What are Erikson's Eight Stages of Psycosocial Development? What do the consist of/what is their meaning?
- Trust vs Mistrust - Babies either trust or mistrust for basic needs
- Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt - Child either self sufficient or doubt their abilities
- Initative vs Guilt - Child wants to undertake Adult Activities or internalize the limits/prohibitions set by parents. They feel either adventurous or guilty
- Industry vs Inferiority - Child learn to be competent & productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior, and unable to do anything as well as they wish they could.
- Identity vs Role Confusion - Adolenscents wonder Who Am I? Establish Sexual, Political & Vocational identities or are confused about what roles to play
- Intimacy vs Isolation - Young Adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others as they fear rejection and disappointment.
- Generativity vs Stagnation - Middle Aged Adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family or they stagnate
- Integrity vs Dispair - Older adults try to make sense out of their lives either seeing life as a meaningful whole or despairing goals never reached.
What are the stages (periods) of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory?
- Sensorimotor (B-2)
- Characteristics: Infants use senses & motor abilities to understand the world. Learning is active; No conceptual or reflective thought.
- Gains: Infants Learn that an object still exists when it is out of sight (object permanence) and begin to think through mental actions
- Preoperational (2-6)Characteristic: Children think magically & poetically, using language to undersatnd the the world. Thinking is egocentric, causing children to perceive the world from their own perspective
- Gains: The imagination flourishes, and language becomes a significeant means of self-expression and of infuence from others.
- Concrete Operational (6-11)
- Characteristics: Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally. Their thinking is limited to what they can personally see, hear, touch, and experience.
- Gains: By applying logical abilities, children learn to understand concepts of conservation, number, claassification, and many other scientific ideas
- Formal Operational (12-Adult)
- Characteristics: Adolescents and Adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally. They can be logical about things they have never experienced.
- Gains: Ethics, politics, and social and moral issues become fascinating as adolescents an adults take a broader and more theorical approach to experience.
What is Behaviorism?
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior.
Behaviorism is also called learning theory because it describes the law and processes by which a behavior is learned.
What is Classical Conditioning?
Classical Conditioning - The learning process in which a meaninful stimulus (i.e. the smell of food to a hungry animal) is connected with a neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) that had no special meaning before conditioning.
Also called respondent Conditioning
What is the Operational Conditioning?
- Operant Conditioning - The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action)
- or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated)
Also called Instrumental Conditioning
What is the difference between Classical Conditioning & Operational Conditioning?
Association versus Behavior Change
Who was Harlow and what did his research uncover?
Dr Harry Harlow was a Psychologist who studied learing in monkeys.
He conducted experiments on maternal separation, and attachment and its effects
What is Social Learning Theory?
- Social Learning Theory - An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behaviour.
- Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people.
What is modeling?
The central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them.
What is nature and what is nurture when pretaining to development?
Heredity versus environment
Nature:(Heredity) The influence of genes that people inherit
Nurture: Environmental influences such as the health and diet of the embro's mother, and continuing lifelong including family, school, community, and society
What is an Ovum?
The female reproductive cell
What is a Gamete? (Sperm and the Ova)
A reproductive cell, that is a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a Gamete from the other sex to make a Zygote
What is a Zygote?
- A new living cell created by the merging of two different cells
- Sperm & Ovum.
- It is unlike the cell of either parent.
What is important abouthe twenty-third pair of chromosomes?
The Sex Chromosome
What is the difference between the Chromosome pairs of XX & XY?
xx is girl xy is boy
What is the female repoductive cell called?
Every normal human body cell has how many chromosomes
23 Pairs or 46 in all.
How are Monozygotic Twins or Identical Twins Conceived?
Monozygotic Twins originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development.
Note: Other monozygotic multiple births such as triplets and quadruplets can occur as well.
How are Dizygotic Twins or Fraternal Conceived?
Dizygotic Twins are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
What extra-chromosome condition occurs that causes Down Syndrome?
Trisomy-21 (three copies of Chromosome 21 instead of two)
How long is the Geminal Period?
It begins with conception and lasts 14 days
How long is the Embryomic Period?
Pg 97 & 99
It runs from the third to the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs develop.
What is the longest period of prenatal development?
The Fetal Period - 9th Weeks after conception until birth
What is the Placenta and what does it do?
The organ that surrounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustaing life via the umbilical cord. The placenta is attached to the wall of the pregnant woman's uterus.
What is Postpartum Depression?
A new mother's feelings of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth.
- Minor - Baby Blues
- Severe - Postpartum Psychosis
The average North American newborn measures?
What sense is least developed at birth?
Sense of Sight
Note the various kinds of reflexes?
Note: the sucking reflex explains why babies suck anything that touches their lips
Kinds of newborn reflexes:
Maintain Oxygen Supply: Breathing, hiccups, sneezes, thrashing
Maintain Body Temperature
Facilitate Feeding: Sucking, rooting, swallowing, spitting up
When are most infants able to crawl on bellies? Walk unassisted?
Crawl - 4-6 months
Walk Unassisted - 1 year (on average)
What did immunization do for child survival ?
Who is Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980)?
Jean Piaget -Theorist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on senses and motor skills
What are the infant's first sesorimotor activities?
What is the relationship between Assimulation and Accommodation
Assimulation is to Accommodation as Incorporating is to Adjusting
Assimulation - new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimulated
Accomdation - old ideas are resturctured to include, or accomodate, new experiences
How is Language Development Demonstrated?
Body movements, gestures, grunts, cries, squeals, and words
What is the ususal order of development of spoken language?
Reflexes, Cooing, Babling, Spoken Words
What are usually the firest words of English-speaking babies?
Names and Nouns
What did B. F. Skinner believe about learning language and reinforcement.
Parents are expert teachers, although other caregivers help them teach children to speak
Frequent repetition of words is instructive, especially when thely are linked to daily life
Well taught infants become well spoken children.
According to to traditional learning theory, personality is molded by
What is separation anxiety and when it is usually strongest?
An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves.
It is most obivious between 9 & 14 months.
Usually strongest at 8 or 9 months.
What is temperament?
Temperament is the inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation.
Temperament is epigenetic, originating in genes but affected by child rearing practices
What are considered the three types of temperament?
- Easy or flexible
- Difficult, active, or feisty
Slow to warm up or cautious
What is Attachment?
An affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver - a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.