Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2012-07-12 16:52:39
Endocrine System

Endocrine System vocabulary
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  1. andr/o
  2. crin/o
    to secrete
  3. dips/o
  4. ket/o
    ketone bodies
  5. pancreat/o
  6. adrenal glands
    the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine 
  7. steroid hormones 
    regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance
  8. androgens 
    steroid produced by the testes
  9. epinephrine
    affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response 
  10. ovaries
    secretes estrogen and progesterone 
  11. estrogen
    the development of female secondary sex characteristics and regulation of reproduction 
  12. pancreas
    secretes insulin and glucagon
  13. insulin
    regulates carbohydrate/sugar metabolism
  14. parathyroid glands
    secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  15. parathyroid hormone
    regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  16. pineal gland
    secretes melatonin and serotonin
  17. melatonin
    affects onset of puberty
  18. serotonin
    serves as the precursor to melatonin
  19. pituitary gland
    makes hormones that affect growth and functions of the body 
  20. antidiuretic hormon (ADH
    influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
  21. oxytocin
    influences uterine contraction
  22. testes
    secretes testosterone 
  23. thymus gland
    secretes thymosin, which regulates immune response 
  24. thyroid gland
    secretes triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and calcitonin
  25. exophthalmos 
    protrusion of one or both eyeballs 
  26. glucosuria 
    sugar in the urine
  27. hirsutism 
    excessive growth of hair in unusual places
  28. hypercalcemia
    high level of calcium in blood
  29. hypocalcemia
    low level of calcium in blood
  30. hyperglycemia
    high blood sugar
  31. hypoglycemia 
    low blood sugar
  32. hyperkalemia
    high level of potassium in the blood
  33. hypokalemia
    low level of potassium in the blood
  34. ketosis
    diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 
    abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine
  35. metabolism
    chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, and elimination of waste
  36. polydispia
    excessive thirst
  37. polyuria
    excessive urination
  38. cushing syndrome
    disorder caused by exposure to high levels of the hormone cortisol. symptoms are upper body obesity, facial puffiness, weakness, thin skin
  39. diabetes mellitus (DM)
    disorder caused by an abnormal utilization of insuin
  40. type 1 diabetes mellitus
    patient is dependent on insulin for survival
  41. type 2 diabetes mellitus
    the patient is not dependent on insulin for survival
  42. hyperinsulinism
    excessive amount of insulin that draws sugar out of the blood 
  43. hyperparathyroidism
    hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands
  44. hypoparathyroidism
    hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
  45. pituitary gland
    secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands 
  46. acromegaly
    enlarged features caused by the hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty 
  47. diabetes insipidus
    abnormal increase in urine output
  48. pituitary dwarfism
    congenital hyposecreetion of growth hormone 
  49. pituitary gigantism
    hypersecretion of growth hormone leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone 
  50. goiter
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  51. hyperthyroidism
    graves disease
    condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland 
  52. hypothyroidism
    low thyroid levels in the blood 
  53. myxe
    advanced hypothyroidism in adults
  54. cretinism
    congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical sature
  55. blood sugar (BS)
    measuring the level of sugar in the blood
  56. fasting blood sugar (FBS)
    measurement of blood sugar levels after a fast of 12 hours
  57. postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
    measurement of blood sugar level after a meal
  58. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    measurements of the body's ability to metabolize carbs
  59. glycohemolobin
    molecule that rises in the blood from an increased level of blood sugar 
  60. electrolytes
    measurement of the level of specific ions in the blood
  61. computed tomography (CT)
    used to obtain a transverse view of the pituitary gland 
  62. thyroid uptake and image
    scan of the thyroid to detect thyroid tumors
  63. adrenalectomy
    excision of adrenal gland
  64. hypophysectomy
    excision of pituitary gland
  65. pancreatectomy
    excision of the pancreas
  66. parathyroidectomy
    excision of parathyroid gland
  67. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  68. thyroidectomy
    excision of thyroid gland
  69. continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)
    insulin pump therapy  
    a device that infuses doses of insulin 
  70. radioiodine therapy 
    use of radioactive iodine to treat disease
  71. antihypoglycemic 
    drug that raises blood sugar
  72. antithyroid drug
    agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones
  73. hypoglycemic antihyperglycemic 
    drug that lowers blood sugar