The Nervous System

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The Nervous System
2012-07-12 02:23:54
Chapter 10 nervous system

terms of related to the nervous system
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  1. arthro
  2. Cerebell/o
    Cerebellum (little brain)
  3. Crani/o
  4. Encephal/o
    entire praint
  5. esthesi/o 
  6. Gangli/o
    ganglion (knot)
  7. Gli/o
  8. Gnos/o 
  9. Hypn/o
  10. Kinesi/o 
  11. Lex/o
    word or phrase
  12. mening/o
    meninges (membrane)
  13. Myel/o
    Spinal Cord or bone Marrow
  14. Myel/o
    Stupor, sleep
  15. neur/o
  16. phas/o

    Aphasia-no speech 
  17. Dysphasia
    troubel swallowing 
  18. Phob/o
    exaggerated fear or sensitivity
  19. Phor/o 
    carry or bear
  20. Phren/o
  21. Schiz/o 
  22. somat/o
  23. spin/o
  24. spondyl/o
  25. Stere/o
    three dimensional or solid
  26. Tax./o
    order or condition 
  27. thalam/o
    thalamus (a room)
  28. ton/o
    tone or tension
  29. top/o 
  30. ventricul/o
    ventricle (Pouch)
  31. cata-
  32. -lepsy
  33. -mania
    condition of abnormal implse toward
  34. -paresis
    slight paralysis
  35. -plegia
  36. Two classes of cells that make up the nervous system
    • neurons (basic structure)
    • neuroglia (supporting structures) 
  37. Neurons are made up of . . .
    •  soma 
    • dendrites
    • axon 
    • synapses 
  38. Nerves
    impulse carrying fibers called nerves
  39. The three divisions of the nervous system . . . 
    • Central nervous system
    • peripherals nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system 
  40. Ependymal cells 
    line brain ventricles
  41. oligodendrocytes
    wrap axons , myelination
  42. Astrocytes
    support capillaries
  43. Microglial cells
    Engluf invading microorganisims and dead tissue
  44. Cerebrum
    Largest portion of the brain , maeks right and left hmispheres 
  45. frontal lobe
    anterior section of each cerebral hmisphere 
  46. parietal lobe
    portion posterior to the frontal lobe , responsible for pain tem and touch sensation
  47. temporal lobe
    portion that lies below the front lobe , hearing taste and smell
  48. occipital lobe
    responsible for vision
  49. cerebral cortex
    responsible for higher mental functions
  50. thalamus
    Gray matter muclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information
  51. Meninges- three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord 
    • Dura matter
    • Arachnoid 
    • pia mater
  52. ventricles
    interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemisphere , filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  53. Cerebrospinal fluid
    Plasma like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  54. spinal cord
    column of nervous tissues from the brainstem through the vertebrae -responsible for nerve conduction
  55. peripheral nervous system
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system 
  56. sensory nerves
    nerves that conduct imulses from the body parts and carry sensory information to the brain
  57. motor nerves
    nerves that conduct motor imulses from the brain to muscles and glands
  58. autonomic nervous system
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle cardiac muscle and various glands
  59. hypothalamus
    control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus
  60. sympathetic nervous system
    division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
  61. parasympathetic nervous system
    restores body to a restful state after stressful experience
  62. aphasia
    condtion without speech because of localized brain injury
  63. dysphasia
    difficulty speaking
  64. coma
    referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness
  65. delirium
    state of mental confusion 
  66. dementia
    impairment of intellectual funtion memory loss disorientation and confusion
  67. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of motor control
  68. Flaccid  Paralysis
    defected (flabby) or absent muscle control cuased by a nerve lesion
  69. spastic paralysis
    Stiff and awkward muslce control caused by a nervous system disorder
  70. Hemiparesis
    partial paralysis of the right or left half of thebody
  71. sciatica
    pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve 
  72. seizure
    sudden transient disturbances in brain function abnormal firing of nerve impulses
  73. syncope
  74. tactile stimulation
    evoking a response by touching 
  75. hyperesthesia
    increased sensitivitiy to stiumlations such as touch or pain
  76. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
  77. agnosia
    any of many types of loss of neurological function
  78. No
    Knowing or mind hypNOsis
  79. alzheimer disease
    disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration  -forgetfullness disorientation loss of intellectual functions, total disability anddeath
  80. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in loss of muscle control. - weakness in muscles, including speech muscles, swallowing breathing total paralysis and death
  81. Cerebral Palsy 
    Condtion of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development
  82. Cerebrovascular diseas
    disorder resulting from a change within one or moew blood vessels of the brain
  83. CVA cerebrovascular accident (Stroke)
    damage to the braing cuased by verebrovascular disesase (occulsion of a blood vessel by an emolus)
  84. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    breif episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that rulsts in temporary neruological deficit
  85. Encephalitis 
    inflammation of hte brain
  86. epilepsy 
    disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by refurrent seizures 
  87. tonic clonic eizure
    stiffening jerking major motor seizure grand mal
  88. absence seizure
    involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement
  89. partial seizure
    seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
  90. glioma
    tumor of the glial cells graded by degree of maligancy
  91. hernitated disk
    protusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk
  92. herpes zoster 
    viral diesease affecting the peripheral nerves charcterzied by painful blisters shingles
  93. huntington disease 
    hereditary disease of the ventral nervous system
  94. hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumlation of the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventrilces of the brain
  95. meningioma
    benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
  96. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  97. MS
    Disease of the central nervous system charaterized by the demyelination of nerve fibers-neurological dysfunction
  98. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder
  99. parkinsons disesase 
    condition of slowly progressive degeneration of a area of the brain -decrease of dopamine which is necessary for proper movement
  100. plegia 
  101. electroencephalogram
    • record of the minute electrical imulses of the brain
  102. lumbar puncture 
    needle into the psine of the lumbar region for dianostic purpose (gets cerebrospinal fluid)
  103. Positron emission tomography (Pet Scan)
    nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy (used to study strokes, alzheimers, epilepsy , etc)
  104. cerebral angiogram
    xray of blood vessels with inection of contrast medium
  105. reflex testing 
    testperformed to observe the bodys respose to a stimulus
  106. babinksi reflex
    response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot- can be used to determine brain function
  107. craniectomy
    excision of a part of the skull
  108. craniotomy
    incision into the skull to get to the brain
  109. diskectomy
    removal of a herniated disk
  110. laminectomy 
    excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrate
  111. hypnotic
    agent that induces sleep
  112. catatonia
    state of unresponsiveness
  113. delusion
    persistant belief that has no basis in reality
  114. euphoria
    exaggerated unfounded feeling of wellbeing
  115. hallucination
    false percepteion of the senses
  116. mania
    state of abnormal elations and increased activity
  117. psychosis
    mental condition characterized by distortion of reality
  118. neuroleptic agents
    used to treat psychosis, like schizophrenia
  119. schizoprenia 
    disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of ones environment