Area of psychology focusing on how physical activities, psychological traits and social relationships affect overall health and rate of illness.
The term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging.
The effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors.
The effect of positive events or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being.
Events that cause a stress reaction.
An unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat.
A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration and moments in which people seem to "relive" the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as one month following the event.
Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)
A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event and concentration problems, lasting or more than one month.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person's life over a one-year period resulting from major life events.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Assessment that measures the amount of stress in a college student's life over a one-year period resulting from major life events.
College Undergraduate Stress Scale
The daily annoyances of everday life.
The psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person's behvaior that come from an outside source.
The psychological experience caused by having no ability to change your particular set of circumstances.
The psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived need.
Actions meant to harm or destroy
Taking out one's frustrations on some less threatening or more available target, a form of displacement.
Psychological defense mechanism in which emotional reactions and behavior responses are shifted to targets that are more available or less threatening that the original target.
Leaving the presence of a stressor, either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse or apathy.
Escape or Withdrawal
The taking of one's life
Psychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two ore more desires or goals, only one of which may be attained.
Conflict occurring when a person must choose between two desirable goals.
Conflict occurring when a person must choose between two undesirable goals.
Conflict occurring when a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects.
Conflict in which the person must decide between two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects.
Double approach-avoidance Conflict
Conflict in which the person must decide between more than two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects.
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict
The three stages of the body's physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance andexhuastion.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The fight or flight system. Reacts when the human body is subjected to stress. Heart rate increases, digestion slows or shuts down and energy is sent to the muscles to help deal with whatever action the stressful situation requires.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Returns the body to normal day-to-day functioning after the stress is ended.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The system of cells, organs and chemicals of the body that resonds to attacks from diseases, infection and injuries.
The study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts and behavior on the immune system.
Immune system cell responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying tumor cells.
Natural Killer Cells
Theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reactions.
The first step in assessing stress, which involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challenge.
The second step in assessing a threat, which involves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressor.
Person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyed.
Type A Personality
Person who is relaxed and laid-back, less driven and competitive that Type A and slow to anger.
Type B Personality
Pleasant but repressed person, who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult.
Type C Personality
A person who seems to thrive on stress but lacks the anger and hostility of the Type A personality.
People who expect negative outcomes.
People who expect positive outcomes.
Negative changes in thoughts, emotions and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration.
Stress resulting from the need to change and adapt a person's ways to the majority culture.
The network of family, friends, neighbors, corworkers and others who can offer support, comfort or aid to a person in need.
Social Support System
Actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce or minimize the effects of stressors.
Coping strategies that try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions.
Coping strategies that change the impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reactions to the stressor.
Unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety.
Psychological Defense Mechanisms
Mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness.
Form of meditation in which a peron focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of distrubing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation.
Concentrative and Receptive Meditation
Psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation.
Psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind.
Psychological defense mechanism in which a person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior.
Psychological defense mechanism in which unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses of feelings.
Psychological defense mechanism in which a person forms an oppostive emotional or behaviorial reaction to the way he or she really feels to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others.
Redirecting feelings from a threatening target to a less threatening one.
Psychological defense mechanism in which a person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations.
Defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
Defense mechanism in which a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area.
Channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acdeptable behavior.
Form of meditation in which a person attempts to become aware of everything in immediate conscious experience, or an expansion of consciouness.