What is this condition called when there is a backward flow of food and acid back to the esophagus due to defective LES (lower esophageal sphincter)?
GERD (gatsroesophageal reflux disease)
*Patients who wake up in the morning with bad breath or persistent chronic cough may have GERD
Due to the lack of enzymes to breakdown these materials in the intestines; symptoms include loose, foul smelling stool +/- bloating. Gluten Enteropathy (Celiac's Disease) and Lactose Intolerace are a part of this family of syndrome.
What conditions may present themselves in this system?
1. Cholelithiasis / Gall Stones
What is the term for stone formation in the gall bladder?
Cholelithiasis / Gall Stones
What is the term for inflammation of gall bladder due to stone in cystic duct obstructing bile flow from gall bladder to duodenum?
What is the term for stone formation in the common bile duct?
*the obstruction may lead to back flow to the Liver leading to jaundice / icterus
*the obstruction may lead to back flow of pancreatic juices / enzymes back to the pancreas where self digestion occurs (pancreatitis)
A 46 year old man was hospitalized for sever pneumonia, and treated aggressively with antibiotics. He developed loose stools one week later. What is the diagnosis?
Antibiotic Associated Colitis
*the causative organism is C. Difficle
The form of Viral Hepatitis has no chronic state. It can be contracted through the fecal / oral route or from raw shellfish.
This form of Viral Hepatitis has a 15-30% chronic state; 3% communicability. It can be contracted through bloodborne route (infected needles or seminal fluid).
This form of Viral Hepatitis has a 50% chronic state; 1.5% communicability. It is contracted through blood transfusions only.
If patient has problems in these quandrants, what conditions should you consider?
If a patient has and Acute Abdomen, what is order of examination?
Inspection: signs of "guarding" (fear of additional pain)
Auscultation: signs of bowel sounds (perstalsis), not very informative
Test for shifting dullness
-tympany --> normal
-dullness --> edema (ascites)
-looking for rigidity (palpatory equivalent to "guarding" / tightening of muscles)
-Rebound Tenderness (BAD) - pain on recoil, not on pressure
The protrusion of a viscous / structure from one body cavity into another.
*if there is unilateral edema-like found in the testicular area, think Hernia first
What is the most common hernia in men and women?
Indirect / Inguinal Hernia
What is the term for abdominal hernia along areas where 2 or more muscles layers intersect?
Direct / Ventral Hernia
This type of Hernia is least common / rare. 9♀:1♂.
Femoral Hernia - this herniates into the empty space (NAVEL)
What does the acronym "NAVEL" stand for?
1. Femoral Nerve
2. Femoral Artery
3. Femoral Vein
4. Femoral Empty Space
5. Femoral Lymphatic Channel
The 4 rules of female reproductive system? Length? First day? Average length? Day of Mid-cycle?
Length of cycle: 28 (+/- 3) day
First day of cycle: menses
Average length of period: 3-5 days
Mid-cycle: Day 14
A 28 year old with a lot of intestinal pain related to her cycle. What does this person have?
*Diagnosis through Laparoscopy
A 16 year old no menses or no cycle. What does this person have?
A 24 year old female, divorced, has two children, takes birth control pills, has irregular mentrual cycle. Last menstrual period was 15 weeks ago. Urine pregnancy test is negative. What does this person have?
Please identify STD's with presentations on the genitals and their characteristics.
Herpes Simplex - group cluster of vesicles
Gonorrhea - discharge
Chlamydia - discharge
HPV - cauliflower lesions
Syphilis - chancre
What is the name of the hormone to test for positive pregnancy?
βhCG (beta human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
What is the significance of the speculum?
To perform a PAP Smear
*Endocervical scaping to screen for Cervical Cancer
1. Normal Cells Results - do nothing
2. Atypical Cells - follow PAP Smear between 3-6 months, if still atypical 6 month later - perform cervical cone biopsy / colposcopy
3. Cancer Cells - remove, chemo, radiation, etc
This type of vaginal discharge is Foamy cottage cheese yellowish discharge with odor. What may this be due to?
This type of vaginal discharge is Clear and odorless.
BV (Bacterial vaginosis / Gardnerella vaginalis)
*it is an STD, multiorganisms
This type of vaginal discharge is Clear frothy.
*flagellated protozoan, it is an STD
What screening test is used for colon cancer? What test is used to diagnosis a patient with colon cancer?