Equine Nursing and medicine
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Equine Nursing and medicine
Female after 3rd Birthday
Mare that has given birth
Intact male between 2&3 yrs old
Stallion that has fathered a foal
4-7 old, either gender
Young horse, till first birthday
1-1/2 to second birthday
How tall can a mini be?
How tall can a pony be
How tall can a "light" horse be
Easy going temperment, Draft breeds
Very spririted, most light breeds
How tall is a mini mediterranean
Up to 36" at the withers
What is the scientific name for "ass"
How tall is a standard donkey
36.01"-48" Working donkey, also known as "burro"
How tall can a large standard be
How tall can the mammoth donkey be
Greater than 54"
What is a male donkey called
What is a female donkey called
what is an informal term for a gelded donkey
What is a donkey used to breed horse mares to produce mules called
Male donkey used to breed jennet mares to produce donkeys
What is the cross on a donkey
Dorsal black strip from poll to tail
How many chromosomes does a horse have
How many pairs of chromosomes does a donkey have
What is the most common term for a "mule"
Horse mare bred to a donkey jack
What is the most common term for a Hinny
Jennet mare bred to a horse stallion
What is a "mare Mule"
female mule; aka molly mule
When a horse has a chestnut coat what base color will you see?
A slight yellow
When a horse has a sorrel color, what base color will you see?
A brown base color with a red tinge
Where does the white color go to on a Tobiano
Extends over the back
Where does the white go on an overo
White does not extend over the back
Where would a white cornet marking be?
right along the cornet band
Where is a Pastern white marking?
Extend up to the pastern but no farther
Where is a sock?
Does not extend past the hock
Where is a stocking
Extends past the hock up the leg
Where do you put a microchip
Halfway between the withers and poll about 1 1/2 inches below the breast of the neck. injected about 1 1/2 inches beneath the skin
What muscle is the micro chip inserted into
A dietary essential for one or more species of animals
What are the nutritional needs
Maintenance, growth, reproduction, production
4 Catagories of essential nutrients
Energy: Charbohydrates, Lipids
Protein: Building blocks of the body
Vitamins: Help bodily functions
What is the most important nutrient
How many gallons can a horse drink per day
1 gal of water for ever 100lbs
How much water can a horse loose while exercising?
10L per hr
What is digestible energy used for in the body
Locomotion, thermoregulation, and maintaining body condition
If you give a horse "too much energy" in its food, what happens?
If you dont give a horse "enough energy" in its food, what happens?
What is the primary source of energy in animals diets?
The break down of carbohydrates and lipids
how is starch formed?
large numbers of simple surgar molecules combine to for complex carbohydrates (starch, cellulose)
What are major components of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers?
Cellulose and hemicelluloses
Waht is the baseline energy metabolism in herbivores?
Cellulose in forages by gut microbes
What are oil orgins
Plant or marine animal orgin
what are fat orgins
Animal fat, no double bonds, solid at room temp
Plant, one or more double bonds, can take up hydrogen, liquid at room temp
the process of converting an unsaturated fatty acid to more saturated one by adding H
Integral part of all cells in the body
what is muscle primarily composed of
Protein and water
What is bone composed of?
Cartilaginous proteiin matrix that becomes mineralized with Ca and Ph
Why are proteins so important?
Important to your immune system, act as a messenger system
What are proteins composed of
How many amino acids make up an animal protein?
What are essential amino acids
Has to be provided through feed
What are nonessential amino acids
Body can make them
Example of an essential amino acid
Example of a Nonessential amino acid
Glycine, serine, cystine
What do all amino acids contain?
How much nitrogen do amino acids contain
What are the 2 types of minerals
Macrominerals and microelements/trace elements
What is an example of a Macro mineral
Calcium, Phos, Sodium, Magnesium, sulfur
What is an example of a microelement
Zinc, Iron, Cobalt
What disease can develop if there are not enough vitamins in the diet
White muscle disease
What vit is absent when "white muscle disease" develops?
What do organic vit. contain
What are the 2 groups of vit.
Fat-soluble, water- soluble
What are some examples of fat-soluble vit.?
Vit, A, D, E, K
What are some examples of Water soluble vit
Thiamin, Biotin, folic acid
What percentage of crude protein does Orchard grass hay have
What % of crude protein does timothy hay have
What are some examples of legume hay?
What does legume hay have a symbiotic relationship witih?
Bacteria in root nodules
What can crude protein % be in legume hay?
can be greater than 20%
Total digestible nutrients
What can readily available carbohydrates cause
Abnormal fermentation= build up of lactic acid in the gut= bacterial toxin release= laminitis
Lower in digestible energy, superior to corn in protein content and protein quality. Always soak first
Highest protein contest of the grains, low in energy content compard to other grains. High in fiber= feeling full so less likely to over eat
What is the protein requirment for an adult horse
How much hay does an adult horse consume
1.5-1..75lbs of hay/ 100lbs
What are the protein requirments for a light work
What are the protein requirments for a moderate work
What are the protein requirments for a heavy work
What is the % of protein in a milk based diet for a foal
When weaning what is the protein % requirment
When is creep feed offered to a foal?
4 weeks old
What ratio is very important for proper bone growth in a foal?
What are the protein requirments for a young growing horse
What causes OCD
Too high protein diets
What can exsessive calcium cause
predisposes them to angular limb deformities and epiphystitis
infl. of growth plate
When does the 1st incisor erupt
when does the 2nd incisor erupt
when does the 3rd incisor erupt
when does the 2nd re-molar erupt
when does the 3rd PM erupt
when does the 4th PM erupt
when do the adult 1st incisors erupt
2 1/2 yrs
when do the adult 2nd incisors erupt
3 1/2 yrs
When do the 3rd adult incisors erupt
4 1/2 yrs
when do the adult canine teeth erupt
when do the PM1 adult teeth erupt
5-6months- 3yrs if present
PM2 in an adult
2 1/2 yrs
PM3 in an adult
PM4 in adult
M1 in adult
M2 in adult
M3 in adult
how many teeth does an adult male have
40 or 42
How many teeth does an adult female have
How many deciduous teeth are there
24. 12 incisors, 12 molars
What is the PM1??
when does the cup for I1 disapear
I2 cap disapear
I3 cap disapears