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What are the differences between managers and leaders?
- Managers: people whose influence on others is limited to the appointed managerial authority of their positions
- Leaders: people with managerial and personal power that can influence others to perform actions beyond those that could be dictated by those persons' formal authority alone
What traits differentiate leaders from non leaders?
- desire to lead
- honesty and integrity
- job-relevant knowledge
What are the types of leadership behavior or styles?
Autocratic style of leadership
leader who centralizes authority, dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation.
Democratic style of leadership
leader who involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation in deciding work methods and goals, and uses feedback to coach employees
Laissez-Faire style of leadership
leader who gives employees complete freedom to make decision and to decide on work methods
What is Fiedler theory?
- theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style of interacting with employees and the degree to which teh situation gives control and influence to the leader
- >LPC questionnaire
- >Identifies three situational criteria- leader member relations, task structure, and position power
What is the path-goal theory?
theory that it is a leader's job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support
What is situational leadership? (SLT)
- leaders should adjust their leadership styles- telling, selling, participating, and delegating- in accordance with the readiness of their followers
- >acceptance: leader effectiveness reflects the reality taht it is the followers who accept or reject
- >readiness: a follower's ability and willingness to perform
What is charismatic leadership?
- followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
- appears to be the most appropriate when follower's task has an ideological component or when the environ. involves a high degree of stress.
- key characteristics: self-confidence, vision, strong convictions, appearance, environ. sensitivity
Transactional leaders v. transformational leaders
transactional leaders: leaders who guide or motivate their followers toward established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
transformational leaders: leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization and are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers
ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future that grows out of and improves upon the present
what skills do visionary leaders need?
- ability to explain the vision to others
- ability to express the vision not just verbally but through the leader's behavior
- ability to extend the vision to different leadership contests
What are the challenges to team leadership?
- Becoming an effected team leader requires:
- learning to share info
- developing the ability to trust
- learning to give up authority
- knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede
- New roles that team leaders take on
- managing team's external boundary
- facilitating team process
Emotional intelligence and leadership
- considered to be the trait difference that makes an individual into a star performer
- EI is essential element of effective leadership
5 dimensions of trust
How does the communication process work?
GO OVER SLIDES
conversion of a message into some symbolic form
a purpose to be conveyed
medium by which a message travels
receiver's translation of a sender's message
degree to which carrying out the work activities require by a job results in the individual's obtaining direct and clear info about the effectiveness of his performance
What are different types of communications?
what are nonverbal communications?
- body language
- verbal intonation
an unofficial channel of communication that is neither authorized nor supported by the organization
Barriers to effective communication:
- selective perception
- information overload
- national culture
Overcoming barriers to effective communication:
- use feedback
- simplify language
- listen actively
- constrain emotions
- watch nonverbal cues
Types of IT:
- Electronic data interchange (EDI)
- video conferencing
- wireless communications
- knowledge management
Why is IT helpful?
opens up other options for communicating
How can you develop interpersonal skills?
- listening by paying attention, interpreting, remembering sound stimuli
- active listening by listening attentively, developing empathy, accepting and not judging
How can you learn to listen?
- autobiographical listening
- merry-go-round listening
- deep listening
- Be aware of the different types of listening and know what is right. avoid the wrong ones
What are some characteristics of feedback?
- positive feedback:
- more readily and accurately perceived
- almost always accepted
- negative feedback:
- most likely accepted when comes from a credible source
- carries weight only when it comes from someone with high status and credibility
What are some suggestions for feedback?
- focus on specific behavior
- keep feedback impersonal
- keep feedback goal oriented
- make feedback well-timed
- ensure understanding
- direct negative feedback toward behavior that receiver can control
How can you empower others?
- setting the range
- defining the expected level of performance
- setting a time frame
- allowing employees to participate
What are three views of conflict?
- Traditional view
- Human relations view
- Interactionist view
assumed that conflict was bad and would always have a negative impact on an organization
Human relations View
argued that conflict was a natural and inevitable occurrence in all organizations; rationalized the existence of conflict and advocated its acceptance
encourages mangers to maintain ongoing minimum level of conflict sufficient to keep organizational units viable, self-critical, and creative
What are sources of conflict?
- communication differences
- structural differences
- personal differences
How can you manage conflict?
- functional conflict: conflict that supports an organization's goals
- dysfunctional conflict: conflict that
What is cooperativeness and assertiveness?
- cooperativeness: degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify a conflict by satisfying the other person's concerns
- assertiveness: how much a person will attempt to solve the conflict to satisfy his own concerns
dimensions of conflict
what conflict management strategies work best for which situations?
refer to slide
What is negotiation?
process in which two or more parties who have different preference must make a joint decision and come to an agreement
Onion sandwich technique
- positive comment
- praise for efforts
- end with a positive
- ask questions