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2012-07-17 20:42:13
Theories Personality

Chapter 13
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  1. The unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel and behave.
  2. Value judgements of a person's moral and ethical behavior.
  3. The enduring characteristics with which each person is born.
  4. Freud's term for both the theory of personality and the theory based upon it.
    Psychoanalytic Perspective
  5. Founder of spychoanalytic school of thought which focuses on the role of the unconscious on behavior.
    Sigmund Freud
  6. Level of the mind which is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions.
  7. Level of the mind in which information is available, but not currently conscious.
  8. Level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness.
    Unconscious Mind
  9. Part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious.
  10. Principle by which the id functions; the immediate satsifaction of needs without regard for the consequences.
    Pleasure Principle
  11. The instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society's standards for behavior.
  12. Part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational and logical.
  13. Principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result.
    Reality Principle
  14. Part of the personality that acts as a moral center.
  15. Part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how acceptable behavior is.
  16. Disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.
  17. An area of the body especially sensitive to sexual stimulation.
    Erogenous Zones
  18. Five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.
    Psychosexual Stages
  19. First stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict.
    Oral Stage
  20. Second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict.
    Anal Stage
  21. A personal fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive and hostile.
    Anal Expulsive Personality
  22. A person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy and stubborn.
    Anal Retentive Personality
  23. Third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discover sexual feelings.
    Phallic Stage
  24. Situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.
    Oedipus Complex
  25. Defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.
  26. Fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.
  27. Fifth stage of Freud's theory occurring from adolescence on; sexual energy is focused on sexual activity with others.
    Genital Stage
  28. Freud's term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it.
  29. Followers of Freud who developed their own competing psychodynamic theories.
  30. Swiss psychiatrist who was a pioneer in the psychoanalytic school of thought and was heavily influenced by Freud.
    Carl Jung
  31. Jung's name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud.
    Personal Unconscious
  32. Jung's name for the memories shared by all members of the human species.
    Collective Unconscious
  33. Jung's collective, universal human memories.
  34. Once of the Neo-Freudians who continued the pursuit of the unconscious.  He focused on the need to power as a driving force in an individual's life.
    Alfred Adler
  35. A neo-Freudian who focused on more equal representation of men and women in psychoanalytic theory and also the role of basic anxiety as a motiviating force.
    Karen Horney
  36. Anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults.
    Basic Anxiety
  37. Developmental psychologist who believed that personality developed thought a series of psychosocial crises.
    Erik Erikson
  38. Personalities typified by maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney's theory.
    Neurotic Personalities
  39. In behaviorisim, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic.
  40. Theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influence of the other people's behavior and of a person's own expectancies of learning.
    Social-Cognitive  Learning Theorists
  41. Learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, juding, memory and imitation of models.
    Social-Cognitive View
  42. Developed the theory of reciprocal determinism to explain personality development.
    Albert Bandura
  43. Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics and behavior can interact to determine future behavior.
    Reciprocal Determinism
  44. Individual's expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomoplish a goal will be in an particular circumstance.
  45. The tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consquences in their lives.
    Locus of Control
  46. A person's subjective feeling that a particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence.
  47. The "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice.
    Humanistic Perspective
  48. Humanist psychologist who focuses on the role of the self-concept and positive regard on personality development
    Carl Rogers
  49. The striving to fulfill one's innate capacities and capabilities.
    Self-Actualizing Tendency
  50. The image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one's life.
  51. Achetype that works with the ego to manage other achetypes and balance the personality.
  52. One's perception of whom one should be or would like to be.
    Ideal Self
  53. One's perception of actual characteristics, trait and abilities.
    Real Self
  54. Warmth, affection, love and respect that comes from significant others in one's life.
    Positive Regard
  55. Positive regard that is given without conditions or string attached.
    Unconditional Positive Regard
  56. Positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.
    Conditional Positive Regard
  57. A person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings.
    Fully Functioning Person
  58. Theories that endeavor to describe the characteritics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior.
    Trait Theories
  59. A consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling and behaving.
  60. Aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person.
    Surface Traits
  61. The more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality.
    Source Traits
  62. Dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation.
  63. Model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.
    Five-Factor Model (Big Five)
  64. One of the five factors; willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.
  65. The care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
  66. Dimension of personality referring to one's need to be with other people.
  67. People who are outgoing and sociable.
  68. People who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.
  69. The emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly and likeable to grumpy, crabby and unpleasant.
  70. Degree of emotional instability or stability.
  71. The assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.
    Trait-Situation Interaction
  72. Field of study devoted to discovering the genetic bases for personality characteristics.
    Behavioral Genetics
  73. Method of personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer, either in a structured or unstructed fashion.
  74. Tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to influence the assessments of the client's behavior and statements.
    Halo Effect
  75. Defence mechanism inolving placing, or "projecting" one's own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself.
  76. Personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind.
    Projective Tests
  77. Projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli.
    Rorschach Inkblot Test
  78. Projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in abmiguous situations as the visual stimuli.
    Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  79. Referring to concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular person's perception and may be influenced by biases, prejudice and personal experiences.
  80. Assessment in which the professional observes the client engaged in ordinary, day-to-day behavior in either a clinical or natural setting.
    Direct Observation
  81. Assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale.
    Rating Scale
  82. Assessment in which the frequency of a particular behavior is counted.
    Frequency Count
  83. Paper and pencil or computerized test that consists of statements that require a specific, standardized response from the person taking the test.
    Personality Inventory