CHO and diabetes

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scubamy36
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162382
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CHO and diabetes
Updated:
2012-07-13 11:08:20
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CHO diabetes
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CHO and diabetes
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  1. Monosaccharides
    • Glucose
    • blood sugar
    • found in fruits and honey
    •  
  2. What is the main energy source for central nervous system?
    Glucose
  3. Is sugar a monosaccharide or a disaccharide?
    Disaccharide
  4. simple CHO, white table sugar and sweetening agents?
    Sugar
  5. Examples of sugar:
    • refined white and brown sugar
    • dextrose
    • crystalline fructose
    • HFCS
    • glucose
    • corn sweeteners
    • concentrated fruit juice
    • honey
    • maple syrup
    • molasses
    • sorbitol
    • mannitol
    • xylitol 
  6. What are some concernes about sugar? (3)
     
    • 1.  sources in the food supply
    • 2.  consumption levels
    • 3.  health effects
    •  
  7. Why is there a national increase in HFCS consumption?
    • - less expensive to produce than refined
    • - used extensively in food manufactoring, replaced refined white sugar, including soft drinks 
  8. How many grams of CHO in 1 tsp of sugar?
    4 grams
  9. What are the health effects of sugar consumption?
    • 1.  nutrient displacement occurs when whole foods are replaced by refined sugars
    • 2.  Dental caries
    • 3.  Obesity (excess intake of cal, not sugar)
    • 4.  Type II diabetes:  not direct relationship 
  10. DRI report on added sugars:
    • < 25% energy intake
    • < 40 g  
  11. Origin of starch?
    Plants
  12. What are resistant starches?
    starches that contain a large amount of fiber
  13. Food sources of starches?
    • grains
    • legumes
    • fruits
    • veggies (carrots, squash, parsnips, sweet potatoes, and yams) 
  14. What is dietary fiber?
    nondigestible plysaccharide (no enzymes) 
  15. Where is fiber founds?
    • whole grain cereals
    • fruits
    • veggies
    • legumes 
  16. What is soluable fiber?
    Where is it found?
    How does it work?
     
    • a.  dissolves in water
    • b.  legumes, oats, nuts, fruits, veggies
    • c.  binds cholesterol and prevents it's absorption
    •      slows gastric emptying
    •      extends satiety 
  17. Where is insoluable fiber found?
    What are it's benefits? 
    • a.  whole grain cereals, wheat, wheat bran, nuts, root veggies, cabbage family, fruits with edible seeds.
    • b.  regulates colon pressure by providing bulk for normal muslce action
    •      combines w bile acids to prevent reabsorption 
  18. Health benefits of fiber:
    • 1. weight control
    • 2. prevents constipation
    • 3. prevents diverticular disease
    • 4. reduces risk of colon cancer (less fat, absorbs carcinogen, speeds up movement)
    • 5.  reduces risk of heart disease (binds w fat and cholest)
    • 6.  Diabetic control (stabalizes b-s levels and slows the absorption of glucose) 
  19. AI of fiber:
    20-38 g/day depending on age and gender
  20. What are some examples of enrichments to refined grains?
    • thiamine
    • riboflavin
    • naicin
    • folate 
  21. High diet?
    • -displacement of essntial FA, vitamins, minerals in higher fat foods
    • -rise in plasma triglycerides and drop in HDLs
    • -elevate blood glucose levels (demand on beta cells)
    • -increased added sugar 
  22. Low CHO diet
    • -replaced with high fat foods (CV risk) or 
    • - high protien (stress on kidneys)
    • -displace adequate fruits, veggies and whole grains and fiber 
  23. Hyperglycemic levels:
    > 120mg/dL
  24. what are two strong risk factors for Type II
    • obesity
    • physical inactivity 
  25. What are metabolic changes with DM?
    • 1. glucose:  can't be oxidized, build up in blood
    • 2.  Fat:  lipolysis increases; accum. of ketones
    • 3.  Proteins:  breakdown of tissues; increase nitrogen excretion 
  26. Treatment goals of DM
    • 1.  maintain opt nutrition
    • 2.  Prevent hypo and hyper- glycemia
    • 3.  prevent complications
    • 3.  consistent, well planned food habits
    • 4.  exercise
    • 5.  medication
    • 6. monitoring 
  27. what risk factors should you get screened if seriously overwieght and <45 yrs old:
    • - family history
    • - low HDL and high trigycerides
    • - high BP
    • - gestational diabetes or birth to >9lbs baby
    • - minority group heritage 
  28. Negative effects of gestational diabetes:
    • - pregnancy-induced hypertension
    • premature birth
    • large fetus size
    • congenital abnormalites
    • future obesity
    • diabetes in infants 

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