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- blood sugar
- found in fruits and honey
What is the main energy source for central nervous system?
Is sugar a monosaccharide or a disaccharide?
simple CHO, white table sugar and sweetening agents?
Examples of sugar:
- refined white and brown sugar
- crystalline fructose
- corn sweeteners
- concentrated fruit juice
- maple syrup
What are some concernes about sugar? (3)
- 1. sources in the food supply
- 2. consumption levels
- 3. health effects
Why is there a national increase in HFCS consumption?
- - less expensive to produce than refined
- - used extensively in food manufactoring, replaced refined white sugar, including soft drinks
How many grams of CHO in 1 tsp of sugar?
What are the health effects of sugar consumption?
- 1. nutrient displacement occurs when whole foods are replaced by refined sugars
- 2. Dental caries
- 3. Obesity (excess intake of cal, not sugar)
- 4. Type II diabetes: not direct relationship
DRI report on added sugars:
- < 25% energy intake
- < 40 g
What are resistant starches?
starches that contain a large amount of fiber
Food sources of starches?
- veggies (carrots, squash, parsnips, sweet potatoes, and yams)
What is dietary fiber?
nondigestible plysaccharide (no enzymes)
Where is fiber founds?
- whole grain cereals
What is soluable fiber?
Where is it found?
How does it work?
- a. dissolves in water
- b. legumes, oats, nuts, fruits, veggies
- c. binds cholesterol and prevents it's absorption
- slows gastric emptying
- extends satiety
Where is insoluable fiber found?
What are it's benefits?
- a. whole grain cereals, wheat, wheat bran, nuts, root veggies, cabbage family, fruits with edible seeds.
- b. regulates colon pressure by providing bulk for normal muslce action
- combines w bile acids to prevent reabsorption
Health benefits of fiber:
- 1. weight control
- 2. prevents constipation
- 3. prevents diverticular disease
- 4. reduces risk of colon cancer (less fat, absorbs carcinogen, speeds up movement)
- 5. reduces risk of heart disease (binds w fat and cholest)
- 6. Diabetic control (stabalizes b-s levels and slows the absorption of glucose)
AI of fiber:
20-38 g/day depending on age and gender
What are some examples of enrichments to refined grains?
- -displacement of essntial FA, vitamins, minerals in higher fat foods
- -rise in plasma triglycerides and drop in HDLs
- -elevate blood glucose levels (demand on beta cells)
- -increased added sugar
Low CHO diet
- -replaced with high fat foods (CV risk) or
- - high protien (stress on kidneys)
- -displace adequate fruits, veggies and whole grains and fiber
what are two strong risk factors for Type II
- physical inactivity
What are metabolic changes with DM?
- 1. glucose: can't be oxidized, build up in blood
- 2. Fat: lipolysis increases; accum. of ketones
- 3. Proteins: breakdown of tissues; increase nitrogen excretion
Treatment goals of DM
- 1. maintain opt nutrition
- 2. Prevent hypo and hyper- glycemia
- 3. prevent complications
- 3. consistent, well planned food habits
- 4. exercise
- 5. medication
- 6. monitoring
what risk factors should you get screened if seriously overwieght and <45 yrs old:
- - family history
- - low HDL and high trigycerides
- - high BP
- - gestational diabetes or birth to >9lbs baby
- - minority group heritage
Negative effects of gestational diabetes:
- - pregnancy-induced hypertension
- premature birth
- large fetus size
- congenital abnormalites
- future obesity
- diabetes in infants