Lecture 4 — The Rise of Early Medieval Christendom (John Karanja)

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Lecture 4 — The Rise of Early Medieval Christendom (John Karanja)
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2012-08-12 20:11:09
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Lecture — Rise Early Medieval Christendom John nKaranja VLI Summer 2012 History Christian Church Theology
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Lecture 4 — The Rise of Early Medieval Christendom (John Karanja), VLI, Summer 2012, History of the Christian Church and Theology
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  1. Recognize descriptions of the middle ages .(Sect. 19.1)
    9.1.1. The Middle Ages (medieval period) — the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Reformation (c476-1500).

    19.1.1.1. Renaissance thinkers portrayed this period as the “dark middle age” between two great civilizations: classical antiquity and the “reborn” civilization of the 14th and 15th centuries.

    • 19.1.1.2. But this characterization was erroneous, for as we shall see later, Western civilization was created in medieval Europe.
    • • The modern nation states, the university, and our modern methods of commerce and banking all emerged in the middle ages.
    • • Among other things, the Middle Ages was characterized by the identification of the church with the organized society, the growth of papal power, and the proliferation of religious orders.
  2. Recognize the middle ages time frames: early middle ages.(Sect. 19.1)
    • 19.1.2.1. The early middle ages (476-1000)
    • During the early middle ages, Western Europeans were effectively cut off from both ancient and contemporary sources of learning and science and forced to fall back on native resources. Sheer physical survival preoccupied most people.
  3. Recognize the middle ages time frames: high middle ages.(Sect. 19.1)
    19.1.2.2. The high middle ages (c1000-1300)

    During the high middle ages, the medieval Christian civilization reached its peak. The 11th century witnessed the revival of trade and towns. Professional elites of physicians, lawyers and theologians appeared for the first time, and trade associations and guilds were formed to protect the interests of merchants and skilled artisans.
  4. Recognize middle ages time frames: late(r) middle ages.(Sect. 19.1)
    • 19.1.2.3. The late(r) middle ages (c1300-1500)
    • During the late middle ages, the medieval Christian civilization began to disintegrate.
  5. Match the Councils of Nicaea with their dates and descriptions. (Sect. 19.3.1)
    The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) decided that the Father and Jesus are co-equal.
  6. Match the Councils of Chalcedon with their dates and descriptions. (Sect. 19.3.1)
    • The Council of Chalcedon (451 AD) decided how Christ is related to us humans: he is fullyhuman and fully divine.
  7. Match the First Council of Constantinople with their dates and descriptions. (Sect. 19.3.1)
    • The First Council of Constantinople (381 AD) clarified the equality of the Holy Spirit (and made important additions to the Nicene Creed).
  8. Recognize the Council of Chalcedon’s three resolutions. (Sect. 19.3.4.1–19.3.4.3)
    19.3.4.1. The council resolved that Eutyches confused the divine and human natures in Christ and therefore was condemned as a heretic.


    19.3.4.2. Christ is one person existing in two natures (human and divine) that are: united without confusion, unchangeable, indivisible and inseparable.

    19.3.4.3. Christ’s divine nature is one of the same substance as the Father and Christ’s human nature is the same as that of all humanity.
  9. Recognize which changes in literacy and education were due to the fall of Rome. (Sect. 19.4.1–19.4.4)
    • 19.4.1. Roman Schools
    • • For only the sons of the rich.
    • • Studied seven liberal arts subjects – the trivium curriculum (rhetoric, dialectic logic and grammar) and the quadrivium curriculum (arithmetic, music, geometry and astronomy).

    • 19.4.2. Monastic Schools
    • • For only monks and nuns.
    • • Studied a reduced curriculum of Latin, the Bible and music (much narrower than the Roman School curriculum).

    • 19.4.3. Decline in preaching
    • • Sermons were shorter because people could not read or understand the Biblical text. More pictures were used in churches to teach the Bible. After 200 years, most preachers could not read, which led to 10-minute sermons and an increase in ritual in worship, especially the Eucharist.

    • 19.4.4. Rise in superstition due to lower literacy
    • • Superstition gripped the whole culture and the church, especially in the Dark Ages (500-1,000 AD). A general rule is: if literacy is low, superstition is high (especially the occult).
  10. Recognize Islam’s impact on the church. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)
    • • Because of Islam’s anti-Christian bias, the church was forbidden to evangelize in the Islamic controlled regions to the south in Africa or the east in India.
    • • Therefore the church expanded north to Russia and west to Europe.
  11. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)

    Muslim
    • Muslim = “One who submits to the will of Allah”
    • • Submission is extremely important. When something bad happens, a good Muslim says, “Allah be praised,” to be a good example of submission. Allah is great and in control.
  12. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)

    Allah
    • Allah
    • .• A jealous God, One God.
    • • Making images of God is forbidden.
    • • He desires our prayers and devotion.
    • • Abraham is the father of Allah’s followers.
  13. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)


    Prayer
    • Prayer
    • • Muslims are called to prayer five times daily, in devotion facing east towards Mecca.
  14. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)


    Koran (Quran) 
    • Koran (Quran)
    • • Truth comes through the Koran as revealed by Allah to Mohammed.
  15. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)


    Sunna
    • Sunna
    • • A collection of Mohammed’s sayings and an account of how he lived.
  16. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)


    Jihad
    • Jihad = “holy war; struggle.” Two aspects:
    • • The righteous to make violent war against evil infidels and heretics to wrestle back holiness.
    • • A Muslim’s personal struggle to live a holy life and fight.
  17. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)


    Sunnites
    • Sunnites
    • • A sect believing that Allah gave revelation to Mohammed through the Koran and the Sunna (after which, Allah’s revelation was closed).
    • • Each generation needs to interpret this revelation.
  18. Match Islam’s key ideas with their descriptions. (Sect. 20.4 &20.5)


    Shi'ites
    • Shi’ites
    • • A sect also believing that Allah gave revelation to Mohammed through the Koran and the Sunna.
    • • Mohammed’s living presence continues in his descendents.
    • • Each generation has a prophet who interprets Mohammed and adds words from Allah. Therefore, Allah’s revelation was not closed after the Koran and the Sunna.
  19. Match the key contributors to early Christianity in the British Isles with their contributions. (Sect. 21)

    Irish Christianity -Christianity was spread first to Ireland, then to Scotland.                   

    Patrick of Ireland (d. 460)
    • • An Englishman who ministered to the Celts in Ireland.
    • • As a boy, sold into slavery in Ireland.
    • • Became Saint Patrick, a great name in Irish Christianity.
    • • Dramatically changed Irish culture.
    • • Greatly influenced the medieval church.
    • • Celtic culture spread to Wales and Scotland, while southeast England was Roman Catholic.
  20. Match the key contributors to early Christianity in the British Isles with their contributions. (Sect. 21)

    Irish Christianity -Christianity was spread first to Ireland, then to Scotland.


    Columba (521-97) and Iona, Scotland
    • • Discipled by Patrick of Ireland’s disciples.
    • • Established Celtic Christianity in the Island of Iona, Scotland.
    • • Strategy - used the undesirable land of the Island of Iona as a base in order not to threaten the local population. Went on daily missions, returning to base at night.
    • • Effectively preached the Gospel in the Scottish highlands.
    • • Considered to be on the same level as a miracle worker as Paul the Apostle.
    • • A scholar.
  21. Match the key contributors to early Christianity in the British Isles with their contributions. (Sect.  21)

    Irish Christianity -Christianity was spread first to Ireland, then to Scotland.


    Aiden (d.651) and Lindisfarne
    • • Aiden left Iona to establish a home-base monastery on Lindisfarne (an island off England’s northeast coast).
    • • Lindisfarne, “Holy Island,” became a major outpost of Christian teaching in northern England.
  22. Match the key contributors to early Christianity in the British Isles with their contributions. (Sect. 21)

    The Roman Catholic Church in England


    Pope Gregory I – Gregory the Great (590-604)
    • • Augustinian monk.
    • • Collected early church hymns – Gregorian Chants.
    • • Promoted missions. Sent Augustine of Canterbury out as missionary to England.
    • • Famous preacher who inspired priests to preach.
    • • Taught preachers to read the Bible in English. • Invented the doctrine of purgatory.
  23. Match the key contributors to early Christianity in the British Isles with their contributions. (Sect. 21)

    The Roman Catholic Church in England


    Augustine of Canterbury (d. c. 604)
    • • Augustinian monk sent by Pope Gregory I as missionary to England, where the general culturewas not Christian.
    • • Established a beachhead of Roman Catholic Christianity in Canterbury. The general culture was not Christian.
    • • Pope Gregory decided to convert the king and queen. As their subjects followed in conversion, the danger of nominal Christianity increased.
  24. Match the key contributors to early Christianity in the British Isles with their contributions. (Sect. 21)

    The Roman Catholic Church in England


    Bede (c. 672-735)
    • • A monk in Umbria, northeast England. Popular name: Saint Bede.
    • • Great scholar, prolific writer. Dabbled in science.
    • • Wrote a great history of Christianity in England.
    • • Had a great ministry in training monks; inspired a love for learning, a renaissance of Christian scholarship.
  25. Recognize the background of the revival of Imperialism (Sect. 22 & Putting it All Together)
    • 22.1.1. Charlemagne’s reign
    • • Crowned emperor (king) by the Pope - 800 AD.
    • • Established a great, powerful kingdom.
    • • A devout Christian. Used his power to promote Christianity.

    • 22.1.1.1. Carolingian Renaissance
    • o Charlemagne highly valued and promoted education.
    • o Established schools for priests to send out missionaries.
    • o Extremely-successful military conquests in Europe.
    • o His idea of Christian Empire flourished for awhile.
  26. Recognize the origins of Holy Roman Empire. (Sect. 22 & Putting it All Together)
    • 22.1.2.1. Viking invasions
    • o Northern Norse sea raiders conquered the Northern European coast.
    • o Small, militaristic culture. Had considerable power and conquests.

    • 22.1.2.2. Defensive alliance of German-speaking lands
    • o Local dukedoms made a military alliance against the Viking invaders
    • o The idea of a military alliance against invaders gave rise to the idea of a Holy Roman Empire.

    22.1.2.3. Henry the Fowler – initiated the German-speaking dukes’ alliance.

    • 22.1.2.4. Otto – Crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire in 962
    • o “Holy Roman Empire” a misnomer because it was not holy, not Roman, and not an empire. However, people wanted the power of those words.
    • o All the peoples cooperated to defend their lands against the Vikings.
    • o Its territory covered the center of Europe (Germany and northern Italy).
    • o Empire lasted 800 years until Napoleon dismantled it in 1806.
  27. Recognize the background of the revival of Imperialism and the origins of Holy Roman Empire. (Putting it All Together)
    • The Medieval Age presented the Church with a new set of challenges as the economy, educational system, and governmental structures changed.

    • The rise of Islam had a profound impact on the geographical expansion of the Church and its doctrines presented new challenges for Christians in Muslim lands.

    • The Holy Roman Empire which lasted from the 10th c. until 1806 was organized as a defensive alliance of individual, German-speaking dukedoms against marauding invaders.
  28. TEXTBOOK LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the major impacts that the Fall of Jerusalem, a major turning point in 70 AD, had on Christianity. (Chapter 1, pp. 26-28, Turning Points: Decisive Moments in theHistory of Christianity, by Mark A. Noll)
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  29. TEXTBOOK LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the four main ways the early church benefited from its ties to Judaism; three of the ways are questions asked by early Christians whose answers were shaped by Judaism. (Chapter 1, Links to the Past section, pp. 28–29, Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity, by Mark A. Noll)
    Coming soonish?

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