study terms for final exam in Western Civilization, 2010
The deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire after WWI
One of the first modern genocides
Process of Germany coming in to absorb Austria
Election plan for Austria to join German reicht.
Hitler scared Austria would vote no, threatened to invade them if they had election.
Austria asked England and France for help but they didn't want to get involved.
Prime Minister resigned in favor of a Nazi, new prime minister invited germans to come in and absorb Austria into German reicht.
Congress of Vienna
Nov. 1814- June 1815
Assembly of European state ambassadors in Vienna to settle issues that resulted from French Revolution and Napoleonic war.
Resulted in redrawing of the continent's political map, established boundaries, mostly of France
Model for League of Nations and United Nations
Committee of Public Safety
Created by Jacobins in 1793
First secret police
Designed to root out opponents of the state
Movement in England that called for everyone to be able to vote
Applied to all men over 21
Voting district should be equal in size
Secret ballot to avoid persecution
Ayone can be elected
Parliment should be paid
Scared people because it was just after the French Rev.
Chartists considered violent and cowardly
British lawyer and geologist
Author of "Principals of Geology"
Popularized the idea that the earth was shaped by slow-moving forces still operating today. The universe continues running the same way it always has
Close friend to Darwin
Theologian whose discoveries contributed to the idea of a modern universe: operate on your own rules, needs no spiritual input for it to work
Didn't want to upset church doctrines
Endorsed in idea of intelligent design
Made many discoveries on the Voyage of Beagel
Theory of evolution
Struggled with ideas of his theories, took a toll on his health
Wallace working on similar theory, so he published his book first
After he died, theories evolved in Social Darwinism
groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
wanted country to be liberal and unified
Inspired by Napolean
rubbed coal on faces for recognition
considered an illegan organization
Anti-colonist, anti-christian movement in China against Brittish
suppressed by Machun Quin Dynasty
Dutch Calvanists called Boers lived in Africa.
Diamonds were found in their area in 1899
British forced Boers out of the land, created concentration camps for them.
Justified it with science, claiming they were deficient for different reasons, including that they couldn't understand English and only spoke Dutch.
Means lightning, refers to speed of attack
German war strategy, used against French armies in WWII
Idea is to send all forces to a concentrated area and make it look like it is a larger army than it actually is
So fast along with it's coordination of airplanes that it confused the French
Germany made huge advances; before long, Hitler was standing in Paris
separated east and west Berlin, built in 1961
Created by German Democratic Republic
Symbolized the Iron curtain that separated Communism from Europe
Came down Nov 9th 1989
Paved the way for German reunification
Happened right after the Marshall Plan
March, 1948 Soviets closed off all roads, railways, rivers and canals that led to West Berlin. Wanted to starve them into submission.
Allies responeded by airlifting supplies (food and coal) to the city everyday.
Soviets didn't believe it would work at first, but eventually gave in summer 1949.
From the period of Romanticism, movement that emphasizes feeling and emotion
First romantic composure
music pieces focused on feeling, not order
Aim was to make listeners explode with emotion
The Battle of Valmy
French battle that witheld the advancing Prussian army and kept them from reaching Paris
Sign that the new revolution began to hold
First time the French defeated an army
Turning point in French Revolution
July 14 1789 there was The Storming of Bastille
One of the starts of the French Revolution
The people stormed the castle and took the weapons
August 29, 1949
First Russian Nuclear Test
Made cold war take on a scarier dimension.
West thought that Soviets wouldn't have nuclear weapons for the next ten years.
From leaked American plans, spies wanted to create peace; if both side have nukes, war is less likely
Cuban Missile Crisis
One of the moments where Cold War almost became "hot"
Fidel Castro lead revolution, nationalized some American company holdings. U.S. gov demanded compensation, Castro refused and asked Soviets for help. They set up nuclear stations in Cuba to keep them from being invaded.
Made Kennedy very angry, said remove missiles or face war (90 miles from U.S. territory)
Eventually backed down and made a truce: Soviets remove Cuban missiles, U.S. removes Turkish missiles
Published Feb. 1848
Written by Marx and Engels
presented an analytical approach to class struggle and problems with capitalism
Ottoman empire wouldn't let Russian citizens through to visit the holy land.
Russia goes to war with them, France and Britain join Ottomans
War showed Russians how far behind they were in technological warfare.
No industrial base and no steamships, very few number of rifles
In fear of being invaded, they went through a rapid industrialization
Term meaning "good birth"
refers to the project of breeding a superior human race.
Championed by scientists, polititians and social critics in late 19th- early 20th century
Emancipation of Serfs
decreepasssed by Tsar Alexander II in 1861 that released the peasants in Russia. This was considered a step towards making Russia more modern.
Proclamation made by Lincoln in 1862 declaring the freedom of all slaves in the United States
8 Ideologies of the French Revolution
Nationalism- unify based on a people's common history and social traditions
Socialism- calls for a classless society with collective ownership of all property
Democracy- government by the people
Republicanism- head of state is appointed through elections
Liberalism- advocates representative gov, free trade, and freedom of speech and religion
Conservatism- tradition, inclusing hereditary monarchy, will dispel divisive ideas of enlightenment
Romanticism- movement in art, music and lit that countered rationalism of Enlightenment by stressing a highly emotional response to nature
Happened as a result of WWII
Countries began backing out of colonized nations
How canwe bring modernization when we have destroyed ourselves?
Russian army officers who were influenced by events in France and formed secret societies that espoused liberal governance. Put down by Nicholas I in 1825.
5 phases of French Revolution
1789,capture king louis national assembly
1789-1792 na ruled country vconstitutional monarchy got rid of debtsold church lands
1792-1794 jacobin party, started killing all against
1797 new calendar by jacobins to 1799 conservatives got contol and started killing whit terror
Denies equality of all people, encourages the strengthening of a nation by weeding out the weaker ones.
Hitler was a strong believer of fascism
Adolph Hitler: Who? What? When? Where?
non- colligated soldier, came to power through constitutional means
Once he became head of government, he pushed laws through to make an illiberal revolution
Ideology of National Socialism. 2 ideologies: 1)To be great, must be strong. 2)Deeper reason of losing WWI, conspiracy of jews