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- The deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire after WWI
- One of the first modern genocides
- Process of Germany coming in to absorb Austria
- Election plan for Austria to join German reicht.
- Hitler scared Austria would vote no, threatened to invade them if they had election.
- Austria asked England and France for help but they didn't want to get involved.
- Prime Minister resigned in favor of a Nazi, new prime minister invited germans to come in and absorb Austria into German reicht.
Congress of Vienna
- Nov. 1814- June 1815
- Assembly of European state ambassadors in Vienna to settle issues that resulted from French Revolution and Napoleonic war.
- Resulted in redrawing of the continent's political map, established boundaries, mostly of France
- Model for League of Nations and United Nations
Committee of Public Safety
- Created by Jacobins in 1793
- First secret police
- Designed to root out opponents of the state
- Movement in England that called for everyone to be able to vote
- Applied to all men over 21
- Voting district should be equal in size
- Secret ballot to avoid persecution
- Ayone can be elected
- Parliment should be paid
- Scared people because it was just after the French Rev.
- Chartists considered violent and cowardly
- British lawyer and geologist
- Author of "Principals of Geology"
- Popularized the idea that the earth was shaped by slow-moving forces still operating today. The universe continues running the same way it always has
- Close friend to Darwin
- Theologian whose discoveries contributed to the idea of a modern universe: operate on your own rules, needs no spiritual input for it to work
- Didn't want to upset church doctrines
- Endorsed in idea of intelligent design
- Made many discoveries on the Voyage of Beagel
- Theory of evolution
- Struggled with ideas of his theories, took a toll on his health
- Wallace working on similar theory, so he published his book first
- After he died, theories evolved in Social Darwinism
- groups of secret revolutionary societies in Italy
- wanted country to be liberal and unified
- Inspired by Napolean
- rubbed coal on faces for recognition
- considered an illegan organization
- Anti-colonist, anti-christian movement in China against Brittish
- suppressed by Machun Quin Dynasty
- Dutch Calvanists called Boers lived in Africa.
- Diamonds were found in their area in 1899
- British forced Boers out of the land, created concentration camps for them.
- Justified it with science, claiming they were deficient for different reasons, including that they couldn't understand English and only spoke Dutch.
- Means lightning, refers to speed of attack
- German war strategy, used against French armies in WWII
- Idea is to send all forces to a concentrated area and make it look like it is a larger army than it actually is
- So fast along with it's coordination of airplanes that it confused the French
- Germany made huge advances; before long, Hitler was standing in Paris
- separated east and west Berlin, built in 1961
- Created by German Democratic Republic
- Symbolized the Iron curtain that separated Communism from Europe
- Came down Nov 9th 1989
- Paved the way for German reunification
- Happened right after the Marshall Plan
- March, 1948 Soviets closed off all roads, railways, rivers and canals that led to West Berlin. Wanted to starve them into submission.
- Allies responeded by airlifting supplies (food and coal) to the city everyday.
- Soviets didn't believe it would work at first, but eventually gave in summer 1949.
- From the period of Romanticism, movement that emphasizes feeling and emotion
- First romantic composure
- music pieces focused on feeling, not order
- Aim was to make listeners explode with emotion
The Battle of Valmy
- French battle that witheld the advancing Prussian army and kept them from reaching Paris
- Sign that the new revolution began to hold
- First time the French defeated an army
- Turning point in French Revolution
- July 14 1789 there was The Storming of Bastille
- One of the starts of the French Revolution
- The people stormed the castle and took the weapons
August 29, 1949
- First Russian Nuclear Test
- Made cold war take on a scarier dimension.
- West thought that Soviets wouldn't have nuclear weapons for the next ten years.
- From leaked American plans, spies wanted to create peace; if both side have nukes, war is less likely
Cuban Missile Crisis
- Oct. 1962
- One of the moments where Cold War almost became "hot"
- Fidel Castro lead revolution, nationalized some American company holdings. U.S. gov demanded compensation, Castro refused and asked Soviets for help. They set up nuclear stations in Cuba to keep them from being invaded.
- Made Kennedy very angry, said remove missiles or face war (90 miles from U.S. territory)
- Eventually backed down and made a truce: Soviets remove Cuban missiles, U.S. removes Turkish missiles
- Published Feb. 1848
- Written by Marx and Engels
- presented an analytical approach to class struggle and problems with capitalism
- Ottoman empire wouldn't let Russian citizens through to visit the holy land.
- Russia goes to war with them, France and Britain join Ottomans
- War showed Russians how far behind they were in technological warfare.
- No industrial base and no steamships, very few number of rifles
- In fear of being invaded, they went through a rapid industrialization
- Term meaning "good birth"
- refers to the project of breeding a superior human race.
- Championed by scientists, polititians and social critics in late 19th- early 20th century
Emancipation of Serfs
decreepasssed by Tsar Alexander II in 1861 that released the peasants in Russia. This was considered a step towards making Russia more modern.
Proclamation made by Lincoln in 1862 declaring the freedom of all slaves in the United States
8 Ideologies of the French Revolution
- Nationalism- unify based on a people's common history and social traditions
- Socialism- calls for a classless society with collective ownership of all property
- Democracy- government by the people
- Republicanism- head of state is appointed through elections
- Liberalism- advocates representative gov, free trade, and freedom of speech and religion
- Conservatism- tradition, inclusing hereditary monarchy, will dispel divisive ideas of enlightenment
- Romanticism- movement in art, music and lit that countered rationalism of Enlightenment by stressing a highly emotional response to nature
- Happened as a result of WWII
- Countries began backing out of colonized nations
- How canwe bring modernization when we have destroyed ourselves?
- Dec. 1825
- Russian army officers who were influenced by events in France and formed secret societies that espoused liberal governance. Put down by Nicholas I in 1825.
5 phases of French Revolution
- 1789,capture king louis national assembly
- 1789-1792 na ruled country vconstitutional monarchy got rid of debtsold church lands
- 1792-1794 jacobin party, started killing all against
- 1797 new calendar by jacobins to 1799 conservatives got contol and started killing whit terror
- napolean 1799-1815
- Denies equality of all people, encourages the strengthening of a nation by weeding out the weaker ones.
- Hitler was a strong believer of fascism
Adolph Hitler: Who? What? When? Where?
- non- colligated soldier, came to power through constitutional means
- Once he became head of government, he pushed laws through to make an illiberal revolution
- Ideology of National Socialism. 2 ideologies: 1)To be great, must be strong. 2)Deeper reason of losing WWI, conspiracy of jews
- Led Germany into WWII