Exam 3: The Thorax Handout Part 3

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brau2308
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162441
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Exam 3: The Thorax Handout Part 3
Updated:
2012-07-14 00:15:42
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anatomy thorax
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review of thorax handout for exam 3
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  1. What is the most common cancer in men?
    bronchogenic carcinoma
  2. What are the major causative facotrs for bronchogenic carcinoma?
    cigarette smoking and urban living
  3. Where do the tumors from bronchogenic carcinoma metastasize? Why
    • to pleurae, hila of lungs, and mediastinum and from them to other parts of body (including skull/brain)
    • because of arrangement of lymphatics 
  4. Tumorous involvement of phrenic N may result in what?
    paralysis of half of respiratory diaphragm
  5. What happens because of the intimate relationship of recurrent laryngeal N to apex of lung?
    N may be involved in apical lung cancers
  6. What are the results of apical lung cancers?
    hoarseness, owing to paralysis of vocal fold (cord), because N supplies all but one of laryngeal mm
  7. Where does involvement of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes occur?
    by lymphogenous spread of cancer cells
  8. Lymph from entire R lung drains into what?
    tracheobronchial lymph nodes on R side
  9. Most lymph from L lung drains into what?
    tracheobronchial lymph nodes of L side
  10. Lymph from lungs drain into the venous system via what?
    R/L bronchomedastinal trunks
  11. Since the lymph from lungs drains into venous system, the lymph may carry cancer cells into what?
    • veous systme
    • R atrium of heart
    •  
  12. After passing through pulmonary circulation, blood and cancer cells return to heart and are distributed to what?
    entire bdy
  13. Where are common sites of hematogenous metastasis of cancer cells from bronchogenic carcinoma?
    • brain
    • bones
    • lungs
    • suprarenal (adrenal) glands  
  14. How do tumor cells most likely eter the systemic circulation?
    passing through capillary/venule in lung, and transported via pulmonary veins, L heart, and aorta
  15. When would lymph nodes superior to clavicle become enlarged and hard?
    w/ CA of bronchus, owing to metastases from primary tumor
  16. Supraclavicular lymph nodes are commonly referred to as what? Why?
    • sentinel lymph nodes
    • b/c enlargement alerts examiner to possibility of malignant disease in thoracic/abdominal organs 

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