B2 lab t1

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XQWCat
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162457
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B2 lab t1
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2012-07-14 09:50:59
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bio II lab
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Bio II lab test 1 evolution, hardy-weinberg, prokaryotes, classification, gram staining, plants
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  1. evolution
    death of anything that is not "fit"
  2. fit
    ability to reproduce
  3. creationism
    belief that things appeared and never changed
  4. catastrophism
    animals don't change, but sometimes they all die (fossil record and oil and coal deposits
  5. Charles Darwin
    Naturalist, Father of natural selection (with Wallace). in 1835 went to Galapagos and saw the finches.
  6. Thomas Malthus
    ~1800, Mathematician, "Essay on principle of population"--populations increase exponentially until "limiting factors" interfere
  7. Charles Lyell
    1830. Books: Principles of geology. Suggested that the earth was older than 6000 years (25 million).
  8. Alfred Wallace
    ~1840s. Presented "Natural Selection, overpopulation and variation" before Darwin, but had previously backed "transmutation of species" (alchemy).
  9. Natural Selection
    Nature chooses one over another
  10. Artificial selection
    Man chooses one over another: dogs, apples, corn
  11. Supports for Natural Selection
    • Homologous structures
    • analogous structures
    • convergent evolution
  12. homologous structures
    same origin, different use: human hands vs. bat wings
  13. analogous structures
    same use, different origin: lungs vs. gills, avian wings vs. insect wings
  14. Convergent evolution
    2 species coming up with the same answer to a problem (analogous structures). Flight of a bird vs. an insect. The bones of almost all animals seem to be the same. Pelvis, skull, eyes, limbs, etc.
  15. molecular clock
    The longer it has been since 2 species' genetic divergence, the more different their amino acid recipes (cytochrome C) are.
  16. Hardy-Weinberg equation
    • How genetics can predict exactly when change is occurring. Population.
    • p + q = 1
    • p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (what you see)
  17. p
    dominant allele
  18. q
    recessive allele
  19. rules for hardy-weinberg
    • no mutation
    • no natural selection
    • large population
    • no artificial selection (random mating)
    • no migration
  20. standard curve
    (hardy-weinberg) Even bell-shape. 25 + 50 + 25 = 1
  21. selective curve
    (hardy-weinberg) favors one side (butterflies at industrial revolution) 100 + 0 + 0 = 1
  22. stabilizing curve
    (hardy-weinberg) heterozygote advantage (sickle cell vs. malaria) 0 + 100 + 0 = 1
  23. enemy of natural selection
    medicine
  24. disruptive curve
    (hardy-weinberg) anti-heterozygote. 50 + 0 + 50 = 1. Usually precedes an evolutionary shift.
  25. Prokaryotes
    no nucleus. Consist of Archaebacteria and eubacteria
  26. Eukaryotes
    true nucleus
  27. Archaebacteria
    Basis of exobiology. Extremeophiles. No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, no peptidoglycan in cell walls, some have histones, otherwise closed-circle DNA
  28. Extremeophiles
    love extreme conditions
  29. acidophiles
    extremeophiles that love acid (stomach/intestines)
  30. thermophiles
    extremeophiles that love dramatic temperatures (lava flows, sulfer vents, ice cores)
  31. halophiles
    extremeophiles that love salt (Dead sea)
  32. Eubacteria
    consist of autotrophs (chemo and photo) and heterotrophs (chemo and photo)
  33. Chemoheterotroph classification
    • shape (motility)--coccus (o), bacillus(0), spirilum (spirally)
    • arrangement--chain (strepto o and 0), bunch/clump (staphylo o-only), mono, diplo
    • motility-- (not all) trichus (hair). mono, amphi, Iopho (tuft), Peri (all around)
  34. Linnaeus
    genus and species (taxonomy--binomial nomenclature)
  35. purple clump of circles
    staphylococcus gram positive
  36. pink chain of ovals with hair on each side
    amphitrichus streptobacillus, gram negative
  37. difference between flagella and trichus
    flagella is part of the cell, trichus is a hair with a hook on the end.
  38. Cell wall types
    • Gram positive: M&M, stains purple. Peptidoglycan wall on the outside. Structurally sound but rigid. Uses exotoxins.
    • Gram negative: raisenette, stains pink (alcohol washes away gooey wall). liposaccharide wall outside peptidoglycan wall. Flexible that makes reproduction and transmission in and out easy, but not safe. Endotoxins (poison dart tree frog). Safety by word-of-mouth
  39. Gram positive
    M&M, stains purple. Peptidoglycan wall on the outside. Structurally sound but rigid. Uses exotoxins.
  40. Gram negative
    raisenette, stains pink (alcohol washes away gooey wall). liposaccharide wall outside peptidoglycan wall. Flexible that makes reproduction and transmission in and out easy, but not safe. Endotoxins (poison dart tree frog). Safety by word-of-mouth
  41. Gram staining process
    • heat fixing (put water on then heat till evaporates)
    • crystal violet (primary stain)
    • wash with water
    • Iodine (Mordant--color-booster)
    • WASH WITH ALCOHOL (key step--decolorizes gram negative by washing away lipid wall)
    • safranin (pink)
    • wash with water
  42. Prokaryote reproduction
    binary fission (asexual). Offspring are genetically identical unless there is a mutation.
  43. recombinance
    when 2 bacteria blend genetic information. Transformation, transduction, conjugation
  44. Transformation
    Mouse thing. Blend heat-killed lethal bits with live harmless and harmless can become lethal.
  45. transduction
    bacteriophage injects genetic material (virus). Makes more, some "oops" and have cell material which gets injected into other cells.
  46. conjugation
    2 bacteria. 1 has an F+ plasmid. F+ means can create a pilis--bridge to other cell to copy and spread plasmid. Both are F+. NOT SEXUAL (2 make 2, not 2 make 3)
  47. Alternation of Generations
    process of plants where part of their life they are diploid (sporophyte) and part they are haploid (gametophytes).
  48. gametophyte
    haploid stage of plants where they produce sex cells
  49. sporophyte
    have sporangia to produce mother spores (2n)
  50. gametangia
    sex organs--archegonium (female) and antheridium (male)
  51. female plant sex organ
    archegonium
  52. male plant sex organ
    antheridium
  53. Bryophyta
    seedless non vascular plants. Simplest. Moss, liverwort. Tiny plants who rely on rain for reproduction. Close to the ground to gather water--outward not upward. New organism grows out of the female (up in moss, down into cup in liverwort), spores fly out and become adult.
  54. Thallus
    liverwort (bryophyta) body. Close to the ground.
  55. rhizoid
    root-like hairs that anchor bryophyta (liverwort) to the ground
  56. cuticle
    waxy covering that ensures plants do not dry out
  57. Ferns
    seedless vascular. Pterophyta, Lycophyta
  58. Pterophyta
    Wing plant. Seedless vascular (only xylem) fern. First tall plant, reproduction issues. Main form is a sporophyte. Spores grow into prothallus (gametophyte) anchored by rhizoids with anther and archae
  59. types of vascular tissue in plants
    • xylem--water only (sink to top)
    • phloem--nutrients (source to sink)
  60. Lycophyta
    heterospory fern (seedless vascular). Some plants are male, some female. 2 types of mother spores: microspore (male) and megaspore (female). Lost advantage in asteroid crash.
  61. Spermatophytes
    survivors of nuclear winter. Seeded plants in 2 groups: gymnosperms (naked seed) and angiosperms (covered seed)
  62. Gymnosperms
    • Pinidae/Coniferaphyta: pine tree (woody, evergreen, monoecious). Hardwood center doesn't have to be fed. Strong, contant photosynthesis, double reproductive whammy (2 types of cones, aerodynamic seed)
    • cycads: flower-like arrangements of cones
    • gingkos: durable in polution. Females stink
    • gnetophyta: organized vascular tissue. Chose whether to move nutrients or salts.
  63. woody or herbacious
    rigid tree(hardwood)or bendy bush (softwood)
  64. evergreen or decidiuous
    classification of post nuclear winter plants
  65. monoecious or dioecious
    • mono--1 plant, 2 sexes
    • di--2 plants, 2 sexes
  66. sepals
    green leaves around a flower (fundraisers--extra photosynthesis)
  67. stamen
    male parts. Consist of anther and filament (bud on top of stick). Anther makes pollen sac with 2 tail-less sperm inside, developed from microspores.
  68. petals
    advertising for pollen-movers
  69. Carpel
    female parts. Consist of Stigma (top, sticky with fructose to attach pollen sac), style (neck), ovary (bulb)
  70. endosperm
    un-split egg (2 nuclei--polar nuclei) in ovary of flower. Fertilized by copy of second sperm as food for embryo.
  71. angiosperm
    • covered seed--fruits and flowers.
    • Liliopsida (monocots) (grass)
    • magnoliopsida (dicots) (maple tree)
  72. cotyledon
    embryonic leaves. Monocot (liliopsida) has one, dicot (magnoliopsida) has two
  73. magnoliopsida
    dicot (maple tree). Complex leaves, branching vascular tissue, stem vascular tissue arranged in a ring (tree growth rings), root vascular tissue arranged in an X
  74. liliopsida
    monocot (grasses). Long leaves with straight vascular tissue, no organization of vascular tissue in stems (random, flexible/pliable) and ring of vascular tissue in root
  75. double fertilization
    flowers, to create the endosperm and embryo

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