genus and species (taxonomy--binomial nomenclature)
purple clump of circles
staphylococcus gram positive
pink chain of ovals with hair on each side
amphitrichus streptobacillus, gram negative
difference between flagella and trichus
flagella is part of the cell, trichus is a hair with a hook on the end.
Cell wall types
Gram positive: M&M, stains purple. Peptidoglycan wall on the outside. Structurally sound but rigid. Uses exotoxins.
Gram negative: raisenette, stains pink (alcohol washes away gooey wall). liposaccharide wall outside peptidoglycan wall. Flexible that makes reproduction and transmission in and out easy, but not safe. Endotoxins (poison dart tree frog). Safety by word-of-mouth
M&M, stains purple. Peptidoglycan wall on the outside. Structurally sound but rigid. Uses exotoxins.
raisenette, stains pink (alcohol washes away gooey wall). liposaccharide wall outside peptidoglycan wall. Flexible that makes reproduction and transmission in and out easy, but not safe. Endotoxins (poison dart tree frog). Safety by word-of-mouth
Gram staining process
heat fixing (put water on then heat till evaporates)
crystal violet (primary stain)
wash with water
WASH WITH ALCOHOL (key step--decolorizes gram negative by washing away lipid wall)
wash with water
binary fission (asexual). Offspring are genetically identical unless there is a mutation.
when 2 bacteria blend genetic information. Transformation, transduction, conjugation
Mouse thing. Blend heat-killed lethal bits with live harmless and harmless can become lethal.
bacteriophage injects genetic material (virus). Makes more, some "oops" and have cell material which gets injected into other cells.
2 bacteria. 1 has an F+ plasmid. F+ means can create a pilis--bridge to other cell to copy and spread plasmid. Both are F+. NOT SEXUAL (2 make 2, not 2 make 3)
Alternation of Generations
process of plants where part of their life they are diploid (sporophyte) and part they are haploid (gametophytes).
haploid stage of plants where they produce sex cells
have sporangia to produce mother spores (2n)
sex organs--archegonium (female) and antheridium (male)
female plant sex organ
male plant sex organ
seedless non vascular plants. Simplest. Moss, liverwort. Tiny plants who rely on rain for reproduction. Close to the ground to gather water--outward not upward. New organism grows out of the female (up in moss, down into cup in liverwort), spores fly out and become adult.
liverwort (bryophyta) body. Close to the ground.
root-like hairs that anchor bryophyta (liverwort) to the ground
waxy covering that ensures plants do not dry out
seedless vascular. Pterophyta, Lycophyta
Wing plant. Seedless vascular (only xylem) fern. First tall plant, reproduction issues. Main form is a sporophyte. Spores grow into prothallus (gametophyte) anchored by rhizoids with anther and archae
types of vascular tissue in plants
xylem--water only (sink to top)
phloem--nutrients (source to sink)
heterospory fern (seedless vascular). Some plants are male, some female. 2 types of mother spores: microspore (male) and megaspore (female). Lost advantage in asteroid crash.
survivors of nuclear winter. Seeded plants in 2 groups: gymnosperms (naked seed) and angiosperms (covered seed)
Pinidae/Coniferaphyta: pine tree (woody, evergreen, monoecious). Hardwood center doesn't have to be fed. Strong, contant photosynthesis, double reproductive whammy (2 types of cones, aerodynamic seed)
cycads: flower-like arrangements of cones
gingkos: durable in polution. Females stink
gnetophyta: organized vascular tissue. Chose whether to move nutrients or salts.
woody or herbacious
rigid tree(hardwood)or bendy bush (softwood)
evergreen or decidiuous
classification of post nuclear winter plants
monoecious or dioecious
mono--1 plant, 2 sexes
di--2 plants, 2 sexes
green leaves around a flower (fundraisers--extra photosynthesis)
male parts. Consist of anther and filament (bud on top of stick). Anther makes pollen sac with 2 tail-less sperm inside, developed from microspores.
advertising for pollen-movers
female parts. Consist of Stigma (top, sticky with fructose to attach pollen sac), style (neck), ovary (bulb)
un-split egg (2 nuclei--polar nuclei) in ovary of flower. Fertilized by copy of second sperm as food for embryo.
covered seed--fruits and flowers.
Liliopsida (monocots) (grass)
magnoliopsida (dicots) (maple tree)
embryonic leaves. Monocot (liliopsida) has one, dicot (magnoliopsida) has two
dicot (maple tree). Complex leaves, branching vascular tissue, stem vascular tissue arranged in a ring (tree growth rings), root vascular tissue arranged in an X
monocot (grasses). Long leaves with straight vascular tissue, no organization of vascular tissue in stems (random, flexible/pliable) and ring of vascular tissue in root