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genetic changes in population over time. Also, changes in allele frequences from what is expected in Hardy-Weinberg Law
theologist, naturalist, HMS Beagle, looked at flora and fauna on galapagos and published "the Origin of the Species by Natural Selection". Looked at species' ability to adapt--the branching bush (divergence points and common ancestors, shared derived characteristics)
selecting traits and breeding those that are desirable. Selectivity chosen by the breeder
all organisms look the same now as they did on the day they were created
fossil record and sedimentary strata support that sometimes a catastrophy kills animals off
Charles Lyell. If it's happened before, it'll happen again, and is likely happing right now (continental drift, Pangea). (SLOW)
Uniformatarianism. If it's happened before, it'll happen again, and is likely happing right now (continental drift, Pangea). (SLOW)
populations increase exponentially (geometrically) until environmental pressures control growth.
ability of an organism to survive and reproduce through evolutionary changes (obtaining favorable variations or getting rid of unfavorable traits)
variation promotes better ability to obtain food, escape from predators and faster
ability to reproduce. Advantage favors individuals with the best variations. They pass these variations to offspring, so in a population over time there will be an increase of favorable traits and a decrease of unfavorable ones.
synthetic theory of evolution
"Neo-Darwinism". Uses mutation, recombination and Mendelian genetics to explain Darwin's variations.
Support of evolution
- fossil record (geology and palentology)
- radioactive decay to determine age of rocks and fossils
- comparative anatomy (homologous structures, analogous structures and convergent evolution)
- similar patterns of development
- biogeography (distribution of plants and animals)
- Molecular biology (serums, amino acid sequencing, DNA, etc. )
similar evolutionary structures but different functions (wings of a bird, wing of a bat, dolphin flipper and human arm)
not similar but used in the same way. Wings of a bird and wings of an insect
unrelated groups adapt to common problems allowing them to converge (analogous structures)
Studied variation in Malaysia and Indonesia. "Natural Selection"--Overpopulation and variation
most organisms produce more offspring than can possibly survive
individuals vary in morphology, physiology and behavior. Evidence of vestigal organs or parts that degenerate or are not functional
an organism resembles another organism or inanimate object to protect it from predators
an organism resembles a harmful species even though it is edible
- 1908. Study of NON-EVOLVING populations. Look at allelic frequencies.
- p + q = 1
- p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (frequency of phenotypes)
2 complete sets of genetic info
- large population
- isolation (closed gene pool)
- no mutations
- no natural selection
- random mating
reasons for evolution
- genetic drift (isolation or small population size--elimination of an allele by random chance)
- genetic bottlenecks (environmental factors reduce population)
- gene flow (migration between populations, spreading new alleles)
isolatin or smallpopulation size--elimination of an allele by random chance
environmental factors reduce population, removing an allele
migration between populations, spreading new alleles
isolation of population (causing alleles to die out)
phenotype espression of one gene alters that of another, independantly inherited gene (labrador color)
one gene that causes many different phenotypes/pathways
two genes to produce one effect (skin color)
co-adaptive gene complexes
collection of genes at different loci allows for expression of a phenotype.
normal bell or standard curve (Hardy weinberg) 25+50+25=100
heterozygote advantage, favors the mean. 0+100+0=1
favors phenotypes at one of the extremes. Curve: 100+0+0=100 or 0+0+100=100
selects for phenotypes at the extremes--polymorphism. 50+0+50=100
two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species
Six kingdoms of life
- 1. Archebacteria
- 2. Eubacteria
- 3. Fungi
- 4. Animalia
- 5. Plantae
- 6. Protista
science of classifying and naming organisms. Based on a heirarchy, grouped by similarities and differences including appearance, lifestyle (habitat, ecology), origin (evolution). Binomial system developed by Linnaeus. 2-part name (genus and species). Each group is a taxon (a species or a genus or a family, etc.
came up with binomial nomenclature.
similar characteristics of species
- breed with one another and produce fertile offspring
- do not breed with other species
- have a common evolutionary ancestor
each particular group in the heirarchy of taxonomy (a particular species/genus/order, etc.)
Taxonomic classification (Order)
- (kids pour catsup over fat green spiders)
the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
evolutionary history of a taxon
history of development of an individual throughout it's entire life
multicelled animals with certain common developmental stages (zygote cleavage, morula, blastula, etc.)
Ranking racism--embryos pass through each common ancestor (lower form of life) before reaching theirs. Embryos of higher form resemble the adults of lower forms. Flawed. Biogenic Law.
at early stages, embryos all look alike. Later, they begin to differentiate.
compare evolution of specific genes by looking at divergence of two groups based on changes in amino acid sequence
virus particle that exists in extracellular state (NOT ALIVE can't reproduce or feed itself). Just a genome in a protein coat.
protein coat surrounding genetic material (DNA or RNA)
protein subunits that form the capsid. Usually 20 come together to form a morphological shape
capsomeres arranged in a geometric pattern around the nucleic acid
viral particle that contains the genetic material packaged in the capsid
lipid bilayer surrounding capsid of some viruses.
single stranded DNA virus (Parvo), naked polyhedron. Infects small animals (with adenovirus)
double stranded DNA, naked polyhedron induces tumors, viral warts and papillomas (genital warts, HPV)
double-stranded DNA, enveloped polyhedron (has lipid bilayer surrounding the capsid). Responsible for various diseases in humans (chicken pox, shingles, epstein barr, HSV 1 and 2); has latent forms
double stranded DNA, enveloped complex (combined helical and polyhedron)
+single stranded RNA, naked polyhedron, responsible for Polio, the common cold, hepatitis A.
+ single stranded RNA, togavirus, enveloped polyhedron
- single stranded RNA, enveloped helical causing mumps and measles
- single stranded RNA, enveloped helical. Upper respiratory infections, (infect horses)
- single stranded RNA, enveloped helical, spiked envelope, rabies
RT single stranded RNA, enveloped helical, RNA tumor viruses, HIV, Rous Sarcoma, FIV, FeLV
method of viral replication that destroys the infected cell. Cuts up genetic material to make new viruses.
method of viral replication that does not destroy the host cell, but cuts into the DNA, putting it's own genes in. Will go lytic if threatened. Temperate phage--does not kill.
Man who wants to know
how things are ordered based on last common ancestor
3 reproductive responses of mammals
egg-layers (platypus and anteater), pouch (marsupials), placental (fetal/maternal barrier)
all chromosomes except sex chromosomes
Autosomal recessive disorder examples
- Sickle-cell (Malaria = heterozygote advantage)
- CF (Typhoid = heterozygote advantage)
- Tay-Sachs (Tuberculosis = heterozygote advantage)
Autosomal dominant disorder example
When heterozygote looks different than either parent
cell-type specific, not alive. Capsid (helical or Icosahedron(20)) surrounding genetic material (DNA or RNA). Can be parts--hedral head, helical tail.
envelope virus with bullet-shaped caspid and diploid RNA with RT (like a polymerase) that codes for T4 helper cells. Makes RNA into DNA, gets into nucleus, makes more and they bud out of the T4 cell to start over. Cell eventually dies.