bio 2 lec t1

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XQWCat
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162458
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bio 2 lec t1
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2012-07-17 18:13:04
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Bio 2 lecture test 1: evolution, hardy-weinberg, viruses
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  1. evolution
    genetic changes in population over time.  Also, changes in allele frequences from what is expected in Hardy-Weinberg Law
  2. Charles Darwin
    theologist, naturalist, HMS Beagle, looked at flora and fauna on galapagos and published "the Origin of the Species by Natural Selection".  Looked at species' ability to adapt--the branching bush (divergence points and common ancestors, shared derived characteristics)
  3. Artificial Selection
    selecting traits and breeding those that are desirable. Selectivity chosen by the breeder
  4. Creationism
    all organisms look the same now as they did on the day they were created
  5. catastrophism
    fossil record and sedimentary strata support that sometimes a catastrophy kills animals off
  6. Uniformatarianism
    Charles Lyell.  If it's happened before, it'll happen again, and is likely happing right now (continental drift, Pangea).  (SLOW)
  7. Lyell
    Uniformatarianism.  If it's happened before, it'll happen again, and is likely happing right now (continental drift, Pangea).  (SLOW)
  8. Malthus
    populations increase exponentially (geometrically) until environmental pressures control growth.
  9. adaptation
    ability of an organism to survive and reproduce through evolutionary changes (obtaining favorable variations or getting rid of unfavorable traits)
  10. competition
    variation promotes better ability to obtain food, escape from predators and faster
  11. survival
    ability to reproduce.  Advantage favors individuals with the best variations.  They pass these variations to offspring, so in a population over time there will be an increase of favorable traits and a decrease of unfavorable ones. 
  12. synthetic theory of evolution
    "Neo-Darwinism".  Uses mutation, recombination and Mendelian genetics to explain Darwin's variations. 
  13. Support of evolution
    • fossil record (geology and palentology)
    • radioactive decay to determine age of rocks and fossils
    • comparative anatomy (homologous structures, analogous structures and convergent evolution)
    • similar patterns of development
    • biogeography (distribution of plants and animals)
    • Molecular biology (serums, amino acid sequencing, DNA, etc. )   
  14. Homologous structures
    similar evolutionary structures but different functions (wings of a bird, wing of a bat, dolphin flipper and human arm)
  15. analogous structures
    not similar but used in the same way.  Wings of a bird and wings of an insect
  16. convergent evolution
    unrelated groups adapt to common problems allowing them to converge (analogous structures)
  17. Wallace
    Studied variation in Malaysia and Indonesia.  "Natural Selection"--Overpopulation and variation
  18. overpopulation
    most organisms produce more offspring than can possibly survive
  19. variation
    individuals vary in morphology, physiology and behavior.  Evidence of vestigal organs or parts that degenerate or are not functional
  20. Mimicry
    an organism resembles another organism or inanimate object to protect it from predators
  21. Batesian mimicry
    an organism resembles a harmful species even though it is edible
  22. Hardy-Weinberg
    • 1908.  Study of NON-EVOLVING populations.  Look at allelic frequencies.
    • p + q = 1
    • p + 2pq + q2 = 1 (frequency of phenotypes)
  23. diploid
    2 complete sets of genetic info
  24. hardy-weinberg criteria
    • large population
    • isolation (closed gene pool)
    • no mutations
    • no natural selection
    • random mating    
  25. reasons for evolution
    • genetic drift (isolation or small population size--elimination of an allele by random chance)
    • genetic bottlenecks (environmental factors reduce population)
    • gene flow (migration between populations, spreading new alleles)
    • mutation   
  26. genetic drift
    isolatin or smallpopulation size--elimination of an allele by random chance
  27. genetic bottleneck
    environmental factors reduce population, removing an allele
  28. gene flow
    migration between populations, spreading new alleles
  29. founder effect
    isolation of population (causing alleles to die out)
  30. epistasis
    phenotype espression of one gene alters that of another, independantly inherited gene (labrador color)
  31. pleiotropy
    one gene that causes many different phenotypes/pathways
  32. polygenic effect
    two genes to produce one effect (skin color)
  33. co-adaptive gene complexes
    collection of genes at different loci allows for expression of a phenotype. 
  34. gaussian curve
    normal bell or standard curve (Hardy weinberg) 25+50+25=100
  35. stabilizing curve
    heterozygote advantage, favors the mean.  0+100+0=1
  36. directional selection
    favors phenotypes at one of the extremes.  Curve: 100+0+0=100 or 0+0+100=100
  37. disruptive selection
    selects for phenotypes at the extremes--polymorphism.  50+0+50=100
  38. genetic polymorphism
    two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species
  39. Six kingdoms of life
    • Prokaryotes
    • 1. Archebacteria
    • 2. Eubacteria
    • Eukarotes
    • 3. Fungi
    • 4. Animalia
    • 5. Plantae
    • 6. Protista       
  40. Taxonomy
    science of classifying and naming organisms.  Based on a heirarchy, grouped by similarities and differences including appearance, lifestyle (habitat, ecology), origin (evolution).  Binomial system developed by Linnaeus.  2-part name (genus and species).  Each group is a taxon (a species or a genus or a family, etc.
  41. Linnaeus
    came up with binomial nomenclature.
  42. similar characteristics of species
    • structural
    • functional
    • developmental
    • breed with one another and produce fertile offspring
    • do not breed with other species
    • have a common evolutionary ancestor    
  43. taxon
    each particular group in the heirarchy of taxonomy (a particular species/genus/order, etc.)
  44. Taxonomic classification (Order)
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
    • (kids pour catsup over fat green spiders)
  45. systematics
    the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
  46. phylogeny
    evolutionary history of a taxon
  47. ontogeny
    history of development of an individual throughout it's entire life
  48. metazoans
    multicelled animals with certain common developmental stages (zygote cleavage, morula, blastula, etc.)
  49. Haeckel
    Ranking racism--embryos pass through each common ancestor (lower form of life) before reaching theirs.  Embryos of higher form resemble the adults of lower forms.  Flawed.  Biogenic Law. 
  50. von Baers
    at early stages, embryos all look alike.  Later, they begin to differentiate. 
  51. molecular clocks
    compare evolution of specific genes by looking at divergence of two groups based on changes in amino acid sequence
  52. virion
    virus particle that exists in extracellular state (NOT ALIVE can't reproduce or feed itself).  Just a genome in a protein coat. 
  53. Infection
    virus reproduction. 
  54. capsid
    protein coat surrounding genetic material (DNA or RNA)
  55. capsomeres
    protein subunits that form the capsid.  Usually 20 come together to form a morphological shape
  56. morphological shape
    capsomeres arranged in a geometric pattern around the nucleic acid
  57. nucleocapsid
    viral particle that contains the genetic material packaged in the capsid
  58. viral envelope
    lipid bilayer surrounding capsid of some viruses.  
  59. Parvovirus
    single stranded DNA virus (Parvo), naked polyhedron.  Infects small animals (with adenovirus)
  60. Papovavirus
    double stranded DNA, naked polyhedron induces tumors, viral warts and papillomas (genital warts, HPV)
  61. Herpesvirus
    double-stranded DNA, enveloped polyhedron (has lipid bilayer surrounding the capsid).  Responsible for various diseases in humans (chicken pox, shingles, epstein barr, HSV 1 and 2); has latent forms
  62. Poxviruses
    double stranded DNA, enveloped complex (combined helical and polyhedron) 
  63. Picornavirus
    +single stranded RNA, naked polyhedron, responsible for Polio, the common cold, hepatitis A.
  64. Hepatitis C
    + single stranded RNA, togavirus, enveloped polyhedron
  65. Paramyxoviruses
    - single stranded RNA, enveloped helical causing mumps and measles
  66. Coronaviruses
    - single stranded RNA, enveloped helical.  Upper respiratory infections, (infect horses)
  67. Rhabdoviruses
    - single stranded RNA, enveloped helical, spiked envelope, rabies
  68. Retroviruses
    RT single stranded RNA, enveloped helical, RNA tumor viruses, HIV, Rous Sarcoma, FIV, FeLV
  69. Lytic infection
    method of viral replication that destroys the infected cell.  Cuts up genetic material to make new viruses. 
  70. lysogenic infection
    method of viral replication that does not destroy the host cell, but cuts into the DNA, putting it's own genes in.  Will go lytic if threatened.  Temperate phage--does not kill.
  71. Homo sapiens
    Man who wants to know
  72. cladistics
    how things are ordered based on last common ancestor
  73. 3 reproductive responses of mammals
    egg-layers (platypus and anteater), pouch (marsupials), placental (fetal/maternal barrier)
  74. Autosomes
    all chromosomes except sex chromosomes
  75. Autosomal recessive disorder examples
    • Sickle-cell (Malaria = heterozygote advantage)
    • CF (Typhoid = heterozygote advantage)
    • Tay-Sachs (Tuberculosis = heterozygote advantage)
  76. Autosomal dominant disorder example
    Achondroplasia
  77. Polymorphism
    When heterozygote looks different than either parent
  78. Lamark
    use it or lose it
  79. virus
    cell-type specific, not alive.  Capsid (helical or Icosahedron(20)) surrounding genetic material (DNA or RNA). Can be parts--hedral head, helical tail.
  80. HIV
    envelope virus with bullet-shaped caspid and diploid RNA with RT (like a polymerase) that codes for T4 helper cells.  Makes RNA into DNA, gets into nucleus, makes more and they bud out of the T4 cell to start over.  Cell eventually dies.

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