Renaissance Era (1450-1600): Music history Terms

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Birdnut
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162541
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Renaissance Era (1450-1600): Music history Terms
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2012-07-15 01:43:21
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Music history terms renaissance 1450 1600
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  1. continuous imitation
    • a type of polyphony associated with Renaissance style
    • a motive or theme is passed from one voice to another
    • the series of entries can be referred to as "points of imitation"
    • many motives may receive this treatment within a single work
  2. homorhythmic texture
    • in a multi-voiced composition, all voices sing in the same rhythm
    • a chordal texture (homophonic) results
    • coupled with syllabic text setting, this technique delivers the text clearly
    • the listener's attention is drawn to the top voice
  3. modal counterpoint
    • polyphonic texture based on modes
    • counterpoint. from Latin punctus contra punctum (note against note)
  4. word painting
    • musical pictorialization
    • in vocal works, the music reflects the meaning of the texts
    • employed in madrigals, operas, oratorios
  5. chromaticism
    • from the Greek word "chroma" (colour)
    • melodies/harmonies that include all the notes available within the octave
  6. Franco-Flemish School
    • a group of composers who flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries
    • in their hands, imitative vocal polyphony flourished and works of lasting significance were composed
    • their musical style influenced composers throughout Europe
    • "Franco refers to France, "Flemish" refers to Flanders, a region encompassingBelgium and Holland on the modern map of Europe
    • leading figures including Johannes Ockeghem, Josquin des Prez, and Jacob Obrecht
    • known for vocal polyphony and highly developed contrapuntal style, particularly in the motet and mass
    • also referred to as "the Dutch School" and /or "the Netherlanders"
  7. mass
    • the most important service in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church
    • includes prayers, readings from the Bible, and re-enactment of the Last Supper referred to as the Eucharist, or Holy Communion
  8. Mass Ordinary
    • unchanging prayers of the mass
    • the components are: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agus Dei
  9. Mass Proper
    • changing, variable prayers of the Mass
    • linked to Church calender
    • sections include: Gradual, Introit, Communion, Alleluia (or Tract), Offertory
  10. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    • leader of the Protestant Reformation and founder of the Lutheran Church
    • posted his "Ninty-five Theses" in 1517
    • reforms included conducting the service in German instead of Latin and engaging the congregation by replacing elaborate polyphonic settings of the mass with simpler music: German chorales with monophonic hymn tunes that were easy to sing
    • because of the translated bible, the congregation could now actively participate in the music of the service using their native language
  11. The Reformation
    • 16th century Christian reform movement in Europe
    • led by Martin Luther
    • resulted in formation of many new Protestant denominations
  12. The Counter-Reformation
    • mid 16th-century reaction of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation
    • the Church's attempt to win back support and regain political power
    • response to challenges to authority included the Council of Trent
  13. Council of Trent
    • a series of meetings of the highest Catholic Church officials
    • took place in Trento, Italy from 1545-1563
    • condemned "Protestant heresies" and reaffirmed the doctrines of Catholicism
    • recommendations regarding liturgical music included:
    • - the text should be audible
    • - the counterpoint should not be too dense
    • - except for the organ, instruments should not be used
    • - harmonic writing should avoid intense chromaticism
    • - use of secular cantus firmus banned
    • - displays of virtuosity should be avoided
  14. musica transalpina
    • influential and historically siginficant. This collection had a great influence on English composers of the period, who became inspired to write their own madrigals in their native tongue
    • Lain for "music from Beyond the Alps"
    • published in London in 1588
    • compiled by editor and singer Nicholas Yonge
    • represents the first printed collection of Italian madrigals in England
    • the first volume contains 57 pieces by 18 Italian composers, including Luca Marenzio
  15. consort of instruments
    • Renaissance term for instrumental ensemble
    • "whole consort". All instruments from one family, such as a consort of viols
    • "broken consort". mixed combination of instruments
  16. viols
    • Renaissance family of bowed string instruments
    • varied in size from small to big
  17. viola da gamba
    • an instrument in the viol family
    • had six strings
    • held between the legs when played, like a modern cello
    • fretted like a guitar
  18. virginal
    • in England, a generic term used for all plucked keyboard instruments
    • smaller and lighter than the harpsicord, simpler in construction, less expensive
    • Italian and Flemish virginals came in many shapes; English versions always rectangular
    • could be placed on a tabletop or held in the player's lap
  19. Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
    • historically significant collection of English keyboard music dating from the early 17th century.
    • close to 300 works in the collection
    • includes a variety of styles: dances, fantasias, preludes, arrangements of songsand madrigals, and variations
    • English keyboard composers of the time are represented, including William Byrd, John Bull, Thomas Morley, and Giles Farnaby
    • idiomatic approach to keyboard writing
    • style of writing is often virtuosic, including rapid scale passages, ornamentation, and many novel figuration
    • fanciful titles include "Carman's Whistle" (William Byrd), "The King's Hunt" (John Bull), and "the Ghost" (William Byrd)

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