Biol110- test2.txt

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dmk5154
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162569
Filename:
Biol110- test2.txt
Updated:
2012-07-15 13:53:27
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biol110 psu
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Biol110 test 2 tutorial and ppt questions
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  1. group of individuals of same species, living in same geographic area
    population
  2. all of the alleles present in a population at a particular time
    gene pool
  3. Natural selection acts on _________, but populations evolve
    individuals
  4. no mutation, mating at random, infinte population, no immigrating, no natural selection: qualities of equilibrium in __________ principle
    Hardy-Weinberg
  5. Smaller populations are more sensitive to change
    genetic drift
  6. ______ effect- catastrophe that decimates large population
    bottleneck
  7. _____ effect- migration of small group away from large population
    founder
  8. sickle cell is an example of _____________: the change in DNA of an organism (heritable)
    mutation
  9. flow-members of population come and go - can change allele frequency
    gene flow
  10. mates may NOT be chosen at random (self fertilization, assortative mating) � changes genotype frequencies but not allele frequencies
    non-random mating
  11. adaptation
    Natural selection
  12. _______ selection: mean phenotype is favored (ex. large/small child birth size)
    stabilizing
  13. _______ selection: an extreme towards one end of the spectrum of variation (ex. pesticide and antibiotic resistance)
    directional
  14. _______ selection: both extremes are selected, while the non-distinct median range is overlooked and phased out (ex. long horned dung beetles vs. tunneling dung beetle)
    diversifying
  15. _______ selection: "heterozygous advantage"- it has increased fitness over its homozygous counterparts (ex. sickle cell carrier)
    balancing
  16. _______ selection: the more common phenotype is selected against
    frequency-dependent (?)
  17. _______ selection: competition within a sex for mating privilege (ex. male crabs fighting)
    intrasexual
  18. _______ selection: mating selection based on preferences (ex. male peacock)
    intersexual
  19. a group of individuals who interbreed, or have the potential to interbreed in nature.
    species
  20. speciation occurs when any condition blocks gene flow between two ___________
    populations
  21. _______ isolation: species live in different areas or different habitats (brown bears vs. polar bears)
    geographical/habit
  22. _______ isolation: isolated by season or day night cycle (plants flowering at different times)
    temporal
  23. _______ isolation: courtship displays, mating calls, pheromones
    behavioral
  24. _______ isolation: male and female reproductive organs coevolve (lock and key strategy)
    mechanical
  25. mating may occur, but fertilization does not (inhospitable female reproductive tract)
    gamete incompatibility
  26. __________ isolation: zygotes form but do not survive OR cannot reproduce. Also, hybrid inviability (genes cannot function together) -ex. male donkey and female horse = mule with abnormal meiosis (cant reproduce)
    post-zygotic
  27. _________ speciation: a physical barrier prevents gene flow between a species (ex. islands)
    allopatric
  28. __________ speciation: new species within a species' home territory (ex. polyploidy haploid vs. diploid in plants causes this)
    sympatric

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