Treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively.
Therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks to a psychological professional.
Therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms.
Therapies in which the main gola is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts and feelings.
Therapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly.
An insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts.
Founder of the psychoanalytic school of thought which focuses on the role of the unconscious on behavior.
The analysis of the elements within a patient's reported dream as a means of revealing unconcious conflicts and desires.
The actual conect of one's dream.
The symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams.
Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations.
Occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent.
In psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive of negative feelings for important people from the past into the therapist.
Therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client's statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions.
A newer and more general term for therapists based on psychoanalysis with the emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times and a more direct therapeutic approach.
Therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgemental listeneer while the client talks.
Psychotherapy focused on conscious, subjective experiences of emotion and people's sense of self.
Humanist psychologist who focused on the role of the self-concept and positive regard on personality development.
A nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens.
Therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the clinet says rather than interpreting those statements.
Referring to the warmth, respect and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Warmth, affection, love and respect that come from significatn others in one's life.
The ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client.
The genuine, open and honest response of the therapist to the client.
Form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences using leading questions and planned epxeriences such as role-playing.
Developed and popularized Gestalt therapy.
Action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior.
The use of learning techniques to modify or change undisirable behavior and increase desirable behavior.
Behavior Modification or Applied Behavior Analysis.
Behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is aksed to make a list of ordered fears and tught to relax while concentraining on those fears.
Replacing an old conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus.
Form of behavior therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior.
Technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is reapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevents from making the usual avoidance or escape method.
Learning through the observation and imitation of others.
Technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model.
The strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consquence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
The use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desied items or priviledges.
A formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavior change, reinforcments and penalties are clearly states.
The removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior.
An extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinformement for undesirable behavior, ususually by being placed on a quiet conrner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunties.
Therapy in which the focus is on helping cleints recognize distortion in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic belief's more realistic, helpful thoguhts.
Distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence.
Distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only on aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects.
Distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original.
Distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization).
Magnification and Minimization
Distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsiblity or blame for events that are unconnected to the person.
Action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
A type of therapy in which a group of clients meet together with a therapist.
A form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family.
Family Counseling (Family Therapy)
A group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving and social and emotional support.
Self-Help Groups (Support Groups)
Controversial form of therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and similar anxiety problems in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory.
Eye-Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR).
Therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques.
The relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect and understanding.
Psychotherapy that is offered on the internet. Also called online, internet or Web therapy or counseling.
Therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain.
The use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders.
Drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and other bizarre behavior.
Drugs used to treat and clam anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers.
Drugs used to treat depression and anxiety.
Form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one ofr both sides of a person's head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (UCT)
Electroconvulsive therapy in which the electrodes are placed on both sides of the head.
Electroconvulsive therapy in which the electrodes are placed on only one side of the head an the forehead.
Surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control several psychological disorders.
Psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed.
Psychosurgical technique in wich an electrode wire is inserted into the cingulated gyrus aread of the brain with the guidance of a magnetic resonance imaging machines for the prupose of destroying that area of the brain tissue with an electric current.