AAPTIS 361 Part I
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards
. What would you like to do?
Saljuqs? 5 point
- -The Saluq dynasty rose in the 11th century to the 14th century.
- -Ethnically Turkish but use Persian in their text and court
- - The empire spread from Anatolia to Persia
- - Many citizens = Christian and Jewish = had dhimma. They weren't force into Islam
- - Ruled over: Iran, Iraq, Palestine/syria, Beyliks
- - battle fought in 1071 btwn Bysantines and Saljuqs.
- -Result: Byzantine defeated --> decrease in Byzantine influece over the area (had control over most of Anatolia where as Saljuqs had Central Asia and Iran.
- - Saljuqs won b/c of military experience using horses and spears.
- - Saljuqs liked the high altitudes and montains even though they weren't used to Anatolia.
- -Battle 1097 - Btwn frend crusaders and Saljuqs during 1st Crusade.
- -Crusaders were victorious and marched through Anatolia unopposed.
- -Battle of Dorylaem of 1147 = btwn German crusaders and Saljuqs during the 2nd crusade with the Saljuqs winning this battle.
- -Siege occurred in 1144. it fell to the crusaders during the first crusade. This led to the 2nd crusade.
- -Zangi fought against combined forces of Byzantine and crusader armies and sought help from the Muslim leaders
- - Edessa was one of the three parts of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- - Responsible for launghing the 1st Crusade (1095-1099). he recieves word from the Byzantine emperor of the time for help from the Saljuqs b/c during this time, the Saljuks had taken over most of Anatolia.
- -He wants to take the holy land from the Saljuqs and in 1099 Juerusalem was seized by the crusaders.
- Assassin - derived from Arabic word Hashshashin, refers to the Persian designation to the Nizari branch of Isma ili Shia under the instruction of Hussan as Sabbah during the middle Ages, they were active in Iran from 8th - 14th centry.
- - Group killed members of the Arab Abbasid,Seljuq and crusaders elite for political and religious reasons.
- -Mostly targeted Sunni Muslims.
- - Killed Nizam al Mulk, Seljuk Wazir considered a fringe phenomenon, but has influence upon todays jihad groups.
- Death: 984-5
- - Preacher who encouraged volunteers to fight for Islam during his sermons, very eloquent, literary and pious memories of old Bysantime wars were included.
- -10th century Islamic preader Ibn Nabuta developed a sycle of sermons calling for holy war- somewhat resembling Urban's later Crusade call.
- - Wrote "Kitab al-Jihad"
- - Preaches jihad against crusaders in 1st crusade.
- -thuoght the act of Jihad was ignored by Muslims & crusades was the punishment for sinning & not practicing the religion properly.
- -Book explains how to practive inner jihad so they could fight the enemy.
- -Also said how Jihad is supposed to be carried out by Caliphs once a year if they were righteous leaders.
- Muslims of the Crusades
- Seljuk Turks
- - He was teh founder of the Zengid dynasty.
- - In Mosul he was succeeded by his eldest son Saif ad-Bin Ghazi I and in Aleppo he was succeeded by this 2nd son Nur ad-Din.
- -conquest of Edessa was his greatest achiement
- -Zengi became atabeg of Mosul in 1127, and of Aleppo 1128, uniting the two cities under his personal rule.
Nur al Din
- 2nd Song of Zangi
- Ruled over Saljuq dynasty from 1146-1174
- - In 1148 2nd crusade led by Louis VII of France came into Syra and Nur al-Din responses b/c he is opposed to the presence of the crusaders in Syria.
- Saladin conqured this area of Palestine from the crusaders in 1187.
- - Battle was btwn Jerusalem (under crusader rule) and armies of Saladin.
- -Muslims gained control of Jerusalem = 3rd Crusade 2 years later.
- -Undermining crusader power in this area allowed many crusader-states to fall to Saladin
- Frederick II was the Roman emperor from 1220-1250
- - during the 6th crusade - gained power of Jerusalem
- - Even though he became ruler, he delayed the crusades and ended up excommunicated.
- - In 1228 he led the crusades, like Muslims and agreed to share Jerusalem for 10 year. Other ppl didn't like it.
- He was made Mamluk sultan of Egypt and Syria (1223-1277)
- - commander in teh 7th crusade which ended in 1254
- - The crusaders, led by Louis IX of France, were baldy defeated.
- - He also led army in the battle of Ayn Jalut.
- - Cairo = captical of Islamic world at this time, Baybars sets up a "shadow caliph" and army to fight the Mongols and he gets killed.
- - Area in Palestine = battle of 'Ayn Julate took place btwn Mongols and Mamluks in 1260.
- -Mamluks defeated mongols,this battle began the Mongol expansion and it was the first time they were defeated.They were unable to advance into Egypt due to this loss.
- - Crusader offered the Mamluks help but they refused.
- - is a jurist and lawyer from Syria
- -Follows Hanbali Sunni School
- - Refugee in thi childhoot b/c of Mongols & delievered many fatwas that he write in jail.
- - Fatwas were about jihad, Shiites, Christians, and visiting tombs.
- -spent a lot of time in jail due to his political and religious debates.
- - he addressed the problem of doing Jihad against Mongols b/c they had converted to Islam.
- - he said you can fight the mongols even though they had converted to Islam b/c they followed Mongolian law
- -Late 13th, early 14th century - wrote 300+ works, great compilation of fatwas
- Lase crusader stronghold on the coast of Palestine.
- - 1104, Acre fell to Crusader and became the main seaport for the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- -Exchanged hands several times, the city became last Crusader stronghold in Palestine to fall in 1291
- -1799 - earned the distinction of resisting Napoleon's conquest of Egypt and Palestine
- - Great seaport and trade center for Greater Syria.
- - Ottoman era - major port for the export of gain.
Usama Bin Munqidh
- Ibn Munqidh worked for the Fatimad courts & serves saladin, Zangi, and Nur al-Din.
- - wrote about the 1st Crusade and crusader states established during his time in "Kitab al-l'tibar" (book of learning by example)
- In Jerusalem
- - Crusaders took over al-Aqsa mosque & used it as a church.
- - Saladin took over Jerusalem in 1187 and restored the mosque to its original functions
- Leader of the Ottoman Empire from 1324-1362
- - wanted to conquer NW Anatolia which was under Byzantine Empire
- - In Turkish = lord and heylik means lordship or what the ruler governs over.
- -Heyliks were under the rule of the Saljuks during the time that Bysantine re-enter in 1261 (politically confusing time)
- term used for 2 groups
- 1. Turkmen people of Turkmenistan & Adjecent parts of Central Asia & teh Kurkomans of Iraq and Syria
- -Largely survived the Mongol period due to their seminomadic life-style & became traders alon the Capian --> lead to Eastern Europe contact
- -Following decline of Mongols = Tamerlane conquered teh area and his Timurid Empire would rule, untill it became too fractured, as the safavis, Uzbeks, & Khanate of Khiva all contest the area.
- - Most inhabitants = converted to Islam
- Reigned from 1370-1405.
- -Conquered Syria and Palestine in bloody defeat & caused lost of destruction.
- - Timur vs Bayesid I (sultan of Ottoman Empire) and Timur wins in an overnight battle in Ankara in 1402.
- After 10 years, ottomans gain rule again.
- - Conquered India
- -Europeans feared him b/c of his power but were in amazment b/c of his accomplishments
- Took over Constantinople in 1452 = end to Byzantine Empire
- - Apocalytic literature of the time claimed that the Day of Judgment would come when Constantinople falls into the hands of a ruler with the name of the Prophet (Mehmet = muhammad in Turkish).
- -He reunited Anatollia and furthered his conquest into Asia and Europer
- Practived by the Ottoman Empire
- -Ottomans would show up in majority Christian populated towns and take young men to Constantinople. Me would be educated and converted to Islam
- -They were drafted into janissaries and bureaucracy.
- The were enslaved (Slaves of Porte).
- -This went against the rules of dhimma b/c they were protected.
- The positive outweighed the negative b/c allowed to keep contact with families, attained an education, and carrier which wouldn't be able to be achieved if they stayed in village.
- Who: infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultan's troops and bodyguards
- What: Ottoman army that became famous for their military skills. They were subjected to strict rules - limiting freedom and demanding higher moral standards. They grew to be the strongest power institutions in the empire. They were distintive in many ways - wore uniformes, were paid salaries.
- When: 1st group fromed in 1380's ended 1826
- -German King - wanting to take over Holy Lands --> big army sent to holy land and conquered all the lands he passed.
- -Syria - he fell off his horse and drowned in a small creek.
- - He wanted to touch the Holy land so his son picked him up in a barrel, but the body decomposed and tehy had to bury him before his body reached the Holy Land
Contrast btwn Ottoman Empire and European powers (particularly France). The Turkish Capitulations were grants made by Sultans to Christian nation granting right and privileges in favor of their people residing or trading in the Ottoman territory.
the site of two sieges by the Ottomans. who could not stay there b/c jihad for the Ottomans was seasonal
refers tot he 60 martyrs of Gaza, encouraged Christian soldiers to keep religion, make pact with Umar, Book of Daniel
- Who: Nestorian Christian monk who predicted mohammad's future as a prophet
- What: When Prophet Mohammas was young (12 or 13) he met with Bahira in Syria where the monk revealed vision of Muhammad's future
Ibn 'Adb al-Wahhab
Who: founder of the fundamentalist branch of Islamic thought known as Wahhabism, which cause of source of controvery in Islam and even Western non-Islamic world.
What: Term meaning "way, path, method" referring to an Islamic religious order. It indicated an order of Sufism
- Who: Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by Sa'adu Abubakar
- What: one of the most powerful empires in the sub-Saharan Africa prior to European conquest and colonization.
- In 1815, dan Fodia retied fromt eh Sultanate and passed the empire to his some, Muhammad Bello, who built the new capital Sokoto.
- - The empire in 19th centure is known as teh Sokoto Caliphate
- When: Late 1700's
- Where: Nigiria
- Who: Algerian Islamic scholar, political and military leader, followed Sufism
- What: Abd al-Qadir led the struggled against the French invasion in the mid-19th century.
- 1813, Algeria was invaded by France and Abd al-Qadir used effective guerilla warfare and scored many victories.
- Result: Abd al Qadir forced to surrender & recognized to be the first hero of the Algerian independence
- Where: Algeria
- Who: Imam Shamil, political and religious leader of Muslim tribes of Norther Caucasus
- What: Imam Shamil was the leader of the anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian War and was also the 3rd Imam of the Cauasian Imamate. Shamil was very effective leader in war, particularly, making effective use of guerilla warfare tactics.
- When: 1797 - march 1871
- Where: Northern Caucasus
Sayyid Ahmad Khan
- Who: Sayyid Ahmad Khan; Islamic reformer and modernist
- What: Very influential Muslim politician who criticized nationalist organizatin such as the Indian National Congress. He formed oragnization that promoted Muslim unity and pro-British attitudes and activites.
- He founded the Muhammedan Alglo-Oriental College & secured teh political future of Muslims in India
- When: October 17, 1817 - March 27,1898
- Where: India
- Who: British/French waged agaisnt the ottoman Empire
- What: 8 month campaign during WWI, attempt to take Ottoman capital (Constantinople) and secure a sea route to Russia --> campaign failed and heavy casualites on both sides
- When: April 1915 - Jan. 1916
- Where: Modern day Turkey/Aegean Sea
- Who: First president of Turkey, distinguished Ottoman general in WWI
- What: led the Ottomans to victory in Gallopoli against the Greeks & their allied support in West Anatolia.
- Kemal won
- Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 establisted the Republic of Turkey and its sovereighty
- When: July 1923 Treaty signed
- Where: anatolia, Modern day Turkey
- Who: Adul Ala Mawdudi
- What: founder of al-Jama'at al Islamiyya
- When: Lived 1903-1979, founded al-Islamiyya in 1941
- Where: British ruled India
- Who: pre-Islamic Arabia, then referrring to the West
- What: in the begining of the semester , this referred to Pre-islamic Arabia "the are of ignorance".
- Extended to include manners, idea, and conceptrs, rules, and regulates,values and criteria
- When: Pre-Islam to today
- Where: everywhere
Al-Jama'at al Islamiyya
- Who: Muslims in India against the partition of India, includes some student unions
- What: religoious political movement to promote Islamic values and practices
- When: 1941
- Where: British ruled India
The Neglected Duty
- Who: Muslim rulers
- What: faults and crimes of the Muslim rulers
- When: since the 1970's
- Where: state of Islam
- Sadat's assasins
- Who: Front Islamique du salut (Islamic salvatino front)
- What: outlawed Islamic political party that wants to estabish an Islamic state based on Sharia Law
- When: Founded in 1989
- Where: Algeria
- Who: An unbeliever
- What: declaring an individual or group of people unbelievers
- When: 1970's-present
- Who: Autor for Book of Siyar and founder of Hanafi Madhhab
- What: Hanafi madhhad is a school of Islamic Law
- When: wrote the Book of Siyar at the end of the 8th century
- Where: modern day Iraq
- Who: also known as Lawrence of Arabia
- What: wrote the 7 Pillars of Wisdom, British Army officer who led the Arab revolt against the Ottomans
- When: WWI, 1916-1918
- Where: modern day Turkey
- Who: Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli
- What: one of many of the example of Colonial powers and movements of Islamic revolt.
- Subject who wanted to get rid of the Ottoman Empire, Algiers was the strongest and was led by Dey
- When: 16th century - 19th century
- Where: Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli
Jihad in the writings of modern Egytian writers such as Shaltuti, Qutb, Faraj, Zawahiri
- Egypt: Significant as primary center of development Jihad discourse and activity
- Al-Banna: d. 1949
- -Expansion of Islam across the world. Starting with Egpt., called for th institution of an Islamic state with caliph as its leavers and the Quran = basis of Law.
- -Wanted moral society in Islamic term and an end to Westernization.
- - called attention to poor conditions in villages, enforcing Zakat = prevent this & repair breakdown in trraditional role of family, so sexes interaction b4 marrage (even if being educated).
- -Nationalist in orientation, called for 1 party structure, national army, ties with Islamic world strengthened, corrupt govs end, and
- Jihad: best of voluntary service man can devote to God.
- -Fatwa: issued against Mongols --> jihad against them = obligatory. - Mongole not true Muslims b/c ruled using man-made laws rather than islamic law therefore state is jahiliyya
- Qutb: Mile stones- no believed frontiers, wantes purist form of Quran/Hadith/Sunna/Ijtihad, avoid contaminatino, cut off jahiliyya
- - All non believers = corrupt & Muslim non-believer = worse.
- - Force allowed, Jihad = definsive in nature
- - reject everything of the West, including democracy and nationalism.
- - Social system - either Nizam Islami (truly islamic) or Nizam Jahi ( pre-Islamic ignorance and barabiran in islam).
- - Also preached of the same thing Taymiyyah does during the time of the Mongols (Muslims forces to live under their rule)
- Faraj: The Neglected Duty- Jihad = Neglected duty w/ contemporary Muslims
- - fight against nearest enemy over the enemy that's far away.
- Qur'an and Hadith =war in service of God and in opposition to evil.
- - Jihad = accept literally, collectively and individually in their down domain.
- - reward = paradise itself
- - Defined al-Qaida strategy in terms of "far" and "near" enemies
- - failure to mobilize the Muslim masses could only be reversed by an attack of the scale of 9/11
- - Failure of Oslo = 2nd antifada
- - Need to inflict maximum casualites on the opponent, no matter how much time and effort such operations take with the least costly in casualties to the mujahedeen
Jihad and counter-crusade in the Near East, 11th century →
- B4 crusades started = Muslim World divided
- - 3 Caliphs: Abbasid, Fatimid & Ummayad
- -Also around the time Turks arrives & sunni Seljuq Sultanate estab. in modern day Iran, Iraq, and syria/Palestine;
- -Battle of Manzikert 1071, opens up Anatolia for Turks 7 drives out Byzantine authorities
- Europe at the time:
- - Church becoming more militar
- - 1st crusade ran by nobles not kings, Pope urban II proclaimed Deus vult (God wants it so), March to Jerusalem, knights & preists alike.
- 1st crusade
- - difficulties,defeated Turkish cavalry in 1097, Edessa and Antioch fell in 1098, Jerusalem in 1099 - Kingdom of Jerusalem established.
- Reasons for Weakness of Muslims:
- - Seljuqs = fighting the Fatimies & were weakened = internal division.
- - Abbasic Caliph = too far away to care.
- Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, captured Edessa in 1144, then son nur alDin --> sparked 2nd Crusade
- -Damascus captured by Crusader in 1148
- -Nur al-Din comes back & captures all of Syria 1154,-- Salahuddin, commander in Egypt, who abolished Fatimid Caliphate in 1171 & gives authority to ABBASIDS
- - 1174 Nur al-Din dies & Salahuddin takes over = projecting image of ascetic and the mujahid as Nur al-Din before him did.
- - Salahuddin takes over Jerusalem after Battle of Hittin.
- -Salahuddin dies 1193, Ayyubid dynastey is formed.
- 4th Crusade, 1202-04 Mostly against Egypt
- 5th Crusade 1217-21
- 6th Crusade 1228-29
- 7th Crusade 1239-41Ayyubids are replaced by Mamluks, just in tiem to meet the Mongols at Ayn Jalut 1260. Crusaders offer help, Mamluks efuse
- Crusaders presence is ended in 1291 after Battle of Acre
- All of this religious scholar and sultans work hand in hand in the couter-Crusade, so jihad is invoked a lot in the fighting. The aim to reclaim jerusalem also has a religious significance.
Ways of thinking about the frontiers of Islam
- 4 Fronteirs1. Byzantine
- -Most important. prediction that world would end when Islam ruled in Constantinople.
- - Caliph Al-Mu'tasim led the campaign into Anatolia
- - 900s dividions within Muslim world were increasing while the BE was becoming stronger.
- 2. Eastern frontier (central Asia)
- - Ruled by Sunnis.
- -Seljuqs estb. sultanate in Iran, Iraq, syria/Palestine (11th c.)
- -Enemy of Fatimids but also saw BE as enemies.
- -Assasins muder Nizan al-malk = chief administrator of seljuqs
- Central Asia
- -was seen as compliant fronier and one which was revered for their great militant skills (mainly Turks)
- 3. North Africa
- 909 Fatimid Calphate founded by Ism'aili and conquer Egypt & founded Cairo in 969
- - Fatmid Caliph al-Hakin took severe measures against Christians
- - Political strife in Fatimids (Assasins were sent to murder leaders)
- 4. Wild West (Spain or al-Andalus)
- + Shi'a Further divided btwn 12ers (Imamis) and 7ers (isma'ilis)
- Later around the time of the Crusades= islamic frontiers = changing for many reasons
- - no longer unified islamic world = priorities change and new enemies formed
- -When crusaders came, most important frontier was the West.
- Also, could be a frontier fo Defensive in response to the crusades:
- -Ayyubids = chose to establich detente with West rather than commit to jihad against Franks
- - Mamluk (648-922) increased aggression agaisnt Franks
- - Established a re-unity against one enemy = Franks
- - more war
- -oriented who wanted to increase their empire in attacking BE
- Todays Frontiers:
- - Afghanistan/Pakistan, palestine, and perhaps gulf due to many wars/attacks that have wages in the region.
Defensive and offensive jihad
- Offensive jihad
- Objective: To ultimately expand the presence of Islam in the worldo
- Early Islamic Period: To fight against the early idol worshiping, gambling, and the exaggeration of generosity that the Arabs exhibited in Arabia/show Arabs the right way of Islam.
- Idea there needing to be an Islamic State
- Writing of Qudama is very specific about the Idea of expanding the Islamic state.
- Abdullah Yusef Azzam
- Fatwa – It is a legal opinion provided by “a friend of the court”
- Considers Offensice jihad = fard al-kifaya (religious obligation), defensive jihad = fard al ayn.
- Believes that a true leader sends out groups to practice offensive jihad against infidels and to make non-Muslims pay Jizya and Zakah paid only by Muslims
- Sayyid Qutb
- Egyptian author who led the Egyption Muslim brotherhood in the 1950’s-60’s
- Wrote the Milestones – Western world corrupt and needs to be fought agaist with offensive jihad (actively attacking infadels and all those, even muslims, who are in their influence)
- Against only acting in defensive Jihad.·
- Defensive jihado
- Islamic Law: When Muslims are attacked then it is an obligation (fard ‘ala l-kifaya = collective obligation” )for ALL Muslims of that land to defend themselves and the religion.
- If aggressors are willing to give up than it is God’s will for Muslims to accept peace over being the aggressor
- Who calls for defensive jihad?
- If under war it is required, otherwise, the Calipho
- Early Islamic Period: Mohammad and Meccanians – 10 year truce – he could have defeated them all at once but once they waved the white flag, he agreed to have the 10 year truce
- This is an example of defensive Jihad because Mohammad and his people were being attacked, therefore they defended themselves, and then when it came time to choose between completely dominating them or coming to a truce, he chose to go for the truce.
- Modern: Palestine – considered to be a right of jihad because it against a occupation.
- Hezbollah – used “defensive” jihad against Israeli solders when they were occupying Lebanese land.
Jihad and state formation
- - Start off as a minotry of "true believers"
- - Started with Beylik
- -Osman - created ottomans
- -Involved in a lot of jihad b/c they wereo n the frontier with Turks beyliks - and grew
- - Sokoto Caliphate in Western Sudan
- - usman don Fodio = son of Muhammad Bello
- -began - surrounding states and group that were only nominally Muslim, jihad declared on them, & turned it into the Soko caliphate
- Shah Isma'ili and the transformatino of Iran into Shi'i country
- shi'i = minority, not after forced conversion = Shi'i majority
- -begining of 1500's
- Most recently = Khomeini wrote about jihad, forming Islamic governement, and jihad as teh struggle to estblis an Islamic state --> Shah overthrown, 1979; war with Iraq 1980-1988
- martyrdom, state and society
Jihad in the eyes of modern Islamic reformers and of modern Islamic radicals
- Mohammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
- - Led reform movement in 18th century eastern Arabia
- Islamic lawyer & jurist
- -strict interpretation of Unity of God, Tawhid
- -Polemics against shi'ism & sufism - viewd reverence of Ali as idolatrous
- - Used term Takfir to refer to wayward Muslims who didn't have the same interpetations of Islam but didn't want to be compared to a Kharajite (who called everyone takfir)
- Usuman dan Fodio (1754-1817)
- set up Caliph of Sokoto in West Sudan in 1804 took title of commander of the faither.
- - He and son Muhammad Bello were members of Fulani tribal federation.& fought against local nominally Muslim states.
- - encouraged Islamic learning & law, after both dies, Caliphate fell apart
- Abd al-qadir - used jihad to resist the French and requested fatwas.
- With Foreign presence - jihad coming from Moghuls in India & when Brits came to India Muslims were large minority.
- Radical Islam & Jihad
- beginning of resistance movement in Islam
- Hasan al-Banna - Muslim brethren - assasinations of Egyption officials
- grass-roots comunity orgacnizations
- Qutb - greatly influence modern radical islam jihad ideas
Internal and external jihad
- Internal Jihad
- - Prophet Mohammad & Quran
- - war normal state unless truce signed
- External Jihad
- - Caliph should issue yearly jihad.
- - Hadith - usually armed action of Jihad.
- Ibn Taymiay - leaders who dont do islamic law = failures injust
- - Leaders must enforce Jihad against non-believers
- -includes overthrow of the governement
the role of ghaza/ghazw/jihad in the origins and expansion of the Ottoman empire
- -Ottomans became dominant Muslim power after it conquered Constantinople 1453
- - Paul Wittek an Austrian Historian Proposes Ghasa theseis
- -The otoman empire lives mainly for the purpose of Ghaza:
- fronteir warfare for sat of:
- Plunder, territorial expansion, glory, religion
- Osman - founder father of Ottoman, advantage of operating in the NW anatolia, facing the Byzantine empire, which allowed hiim to have more followers than his rivals BE.
- Wittek argues that the Ottomans were in a holy warfare against the Christians
- Many other historians disagree with Wittek b/c ottaomans also fight side by side with Christian as well there is already history of life in Islam, even before Osman came to power.
- -Bonner "ottomans origins, the ghaza of the early ottomans & their allies is contrasted with the Jihad of the traditional, conservative jurists"
- - Jihad not always defensive
- -Built a Strong navy which lead to control of Europe and north Africa.
Jihad in the response to European colonial expansion in the modern era
Main points: Abdul Ala Maududi's Jamaat Islami --> al-Banna Muslim brotherhood --> Qutb
What would you like to do?
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview