Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory.
What did the experimental appartatus that Wilhelm Wundt created measure?
The time lag between people hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a button
What were the two early schools of thought as it pertains to psychology?
Structuralism and Functionalism
What is structuralism and who was behind it?
Edward Titchener aimed to discover the mind's structure by engaging people in introspection; training people to report elements of their experience as they looked at a rose, smelled a scent, etc.
What is functionalism and who was behind it?
Williams James thought it would be more fruitful to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings. James assumed that thinking developed because it was adaptive and contributed to our survival. He encouraged down exploration of emotions, memory, willpower, etc.
Who was the first female president of the APA?
Mary Whiton Calkins
Who was the first female to hold a PhD in psychology?
Margaret Floy Washburn
Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?
People's self reports varied, depending on their experience, intelligence and verbal ability
What is behaviorism?
The view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes
What were the major forces in psychology from the 1920's thru the 1960's ?
Fruedian and behaviorism
Who were the two psychologists behind behaviorism?
John B Watson
What is Freudian psychology?
Freudian psychology emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior.
What is humanistic psychology and who was behind it?
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow; they drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential; the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisified.
What was the cognitive revolution?
The rebellion of a group of psychologists in the 60's that led the field back to its early interest in mental processes, such as the importance of how our mind processes and retains information.
What is cognitive psychology?
Cognitive psychology scientifically explores the way we perceive, process and remember information.
What is cognitive neuroscience?
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory and language)
How is psychology defined today?
The science of behavior and mental processes
What is behavior?
Anything an organism does - any action we can observe and record
What are mental processes?
The internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior - sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs and feelings.
Who is behind natural selection and what is the name of the book that introduced this concept?
On the Origin of the Species by Charles Darwin
What is contemporary psychology's position on the nature-nurture debate?
Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone.
What are the different levels of analysis in psychology?
Biological, Psychological, Socio-cultural.... also called biopsychosocial approach
What are biological influences?
- Natural selection of adaptive traits
- Genetic predispositions responding to enviroment
- Brain mechanisms
- Hormonal influences
What are psychological influences?
- Learned fears and other learned expectations
- Emotional responses
- Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations
What are social-cultural influences?
- presence of others
- cultural, societal and family expectations
- peer and other group influences
What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychological events?
The biopsychosocial approach can provide a more complete view than any one perspective could offer. Like two-dimensional views of a three-dimensional object, each of psychology’s perspectives is helpful. But each by itself fails to reveal the whole picture.
What is the testing effect?
The enhanced memory that results from repeated retrieval (as in self-testing) rather than from simple rereading of new information.