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  1. What conditions include COPD?
    • Emphysema, 
    • Chronic Bronchitis
  2. What sort of etiologies are involved with COPD?
    • Smoking  #1, can be both, but more often emphysema. 
    • Pollution
    • Infection--Recurring URI’s
    • Heredity--Antitrypsin Deficiency (ATT) (can be young with no Hx of smoking, but will still present with COPD emphysema). 
    • Aging
    • --Loss of elastic recoil
    • --Less functional alveoli
  3. COPD pathophysiology
    • Primary process is inflammation due to: 
    • Inhalation of noxious particles
    • Mediators released cause damage to lung tissue
    • Airways inflamed
    • Parenchyma destroyed
  4. Emphysema pathophys
    • Destruction/breakdown of alveoli-->impaired (reduced) gas exchange
    • Loss of elasticity of bronchioles--> “Air trapping” & “CO2 retainer”
  5. What are Bullaes and Blebs?
    Image Upload
  6. Pathyphys of Chronic Bronchitis
    Presence of chronic, productive cough for 3+ months in each of 2 successive years after other causes have been ruled out.

    • Hyperplasia of mucus cells-->^ mucous production
    • Increased goblet cells
    • Bye-bye cilia--> ^ mucous accumulation. 
    • Inflammation -->narrow airways--> blockage.
    • Dysfunctional macrophages -->infections
    • Alveoli & capillaries are normal
  7. COPD SnSs
    • Dyspnea 
    • Intermittent coughing with small amounts of sputum
    • Overdistention of alveoli = barrel chest
    • Chest breathing = accessory muscle use
    • Hypoxemia--partial pressure arteriol (Pa) O2
    • Hypercapnia (, ^CO2Late)
    • Bluish-red skin
    • Polycythemic--increased blood cells including hemoglobin--> thick blood. 
  8. COPD Complications
    • Cor pulmonale: Rt side heart enlargement due to compensation for COPD. Look it up. 
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Acidosis due to ^CO2 levels. 
    • Polycythemia, again, increase blood cells--> blood thickening.
    • Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) & GERD: due to treatment with corticoidsteroids. 
    • Acute respiratory failure (ARF)
    • Pneumonia
    • Depression & Anxiety 
  9. COPD collaborative care
    • Smoking cessation
    • Drug therapy
    • Oxygen therapy
    • Surgical therapy
    • Nutrition
  10. What is Proning?
    • Image Upload
    • repositioning to maximize expansion and aid breathing.
Card Set:
2012-07-17 14:10:29

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder
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