Chapter 1 & 2

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HunniAngel
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162684
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Chapter 1 & 2
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2012-07-18 16:41:14
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Diagnostic Imaging Physics
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Diagnostic Imaging Physics
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  1. ___________ is anything that occupies space and has a mass.

    A) Matter
    B) Weight
    C) Energy
    D) Mass
    A) Matter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following items is considered to be matter?

    A) Airport surveillance x-rays
    B) Wet snow
    C) Cell phone signals
    D) Light from a movie projector
    E) Anode heat
    B) Wet snow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following is the principal difference between mass and weight?

    A) Weight does not change with position; mass does
    B) Weight is energy; mass requires gravity
    C) Mass is measured in pounds; weight is measure in kilograms
    D) Mass is the equivalence of energy; weight is the force exerted by gravity
    E) There is no difference; mass and weight are equal
    D) Mass is the equivalence of energy; weight is the force exerted by gravity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Energy is defined as:

    A) A force exerted by a body
    B) Anything that occupies space and has shape
    C) The ability to do work
    D) The quantity of matter
    E) The degree of gravity
    C) The ability to do work
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is an example of electromagnetic radiation?

    A) Beta rays
    B) Ultrasound
    C) Alpha radiation
    D) Visible light
    E) Sound
    D) Visible light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which form of electromagnetic radiation is considered ionizing radiation?

    A) Visible light
    B) X-rays
    C) Microwaves
    D) Radiofrequency waves
    B) X-rays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following is the largest source of human exposure to man-made radiation?

    A) Radioactive fallout
    B) Medical diagnostic x-rays
    C) Radioactive materials in consumer products
    D) Nuclear power generating stations
    E) Cosmic rays
    B) Medical diagnostic x-rays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of the following is the largest source of natural radiation?

    A) Terrestrial
    B) Cosmic
    C) Radon
    D) Internal
    C) Radon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following results in the highest annual radiation dose?

    A) Natural
    B) Man-made
    A) Natural
  10. What was the device with which Roentgen discovered x-rays?

    A) Anode tube
    B) Coolidge tube
    C) Geissler tube
    D) Crookes tube
    D) Crookes tube
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What year were x-rays discovered?

    A) 1492
    B) 1895
    C) 1900
    D) 1985
    B) 1895
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following early pioneers developed the fluoroscope?

    A) Wilhelm Roentgen
    B) Thomas Edison
    C) William Crookes
    D) Alexander G. Bell
    E) J.J. Thomson
    B) Thomas Edison
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which of the following provides dynamic x-ray images?

    A) Mammography
    B) Fluoroscopy
    C) Digital radiography
    D) Tomography
    E) Doppler ultrasonography
    B) Fluoroscopy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following regarding x-ray induced death is TRUE?

    A) Clarence Dally was the first reported in the United States
    B) The first death occurred upon the first x-ray
    C) Radiology has always been considered a completely safe occupation
    D) No medical radiation deaths have occurred
    A) Clarence Dally was the first reported in the United States
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. One of the cardinal principles of radiation protection states that the radiologic technologist should minimize which of the following?

    A) kVp
    B) Time
    C) mAs
    D) Shielding
    E) Distance
    B) Time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following is NOT considered a base quantity?

    A) Mass
    B) Time
    C) Length
    D) Work
    D) Work
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Another name for velocity is:

    A) Time
    B) Energy
    C) Work
    D) Mass
    E) Speed
    E) Speed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Inertia is:

    A) Resistance to a change in motion
    B) Velocity times time
    C) Velocity divided by time
    D) Newton’s second law of motion
    E) Mass times acceleration
    A) Resistance to a change in motion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following is a unit or work?

    A) Joule
    B) Rad
    C) Gray
    D) Newton
    E) Hertz
    A) Joule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which type of heat transfer causes a reddish glow?

    A) Conduction
    B) Convection
    C) Thermal radiation
    C) Thermal radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. ____________ is anything that occupies space and has a mass
    Matter
  22. ___________ is the quantity of matter contained in any physical object
    Mass
  23. ___________ is the force exerted on a body under the influence of gravity
    Weight
  24. What is true about mass vs. weight
  25. –Mass remains constant
    –Weight does not
  26. The ability to do work is ____________
    energy
  27. What are the 7 major forms of energy?
    • potential
    • kinetic
    • chemical
    • electrical
    • thermal
    • nuclear
    • electromagnetic
  28. ____________ is the ability to do work by virtue of position
    potential
  29. ___________ is the energy of motion
    kinectic
  30. ___________  energy released by a chemical reaction
    chemical
  31. _____________ energy represents the work that can be done when an electron moves through an electric potential difference
    electric
  32. ___________energy (heat) is the energy of motion at the molecular level
    thermal
  33. The more the molecules vibrate, the more _________
    heat you have
  34. ___________energy is contained within the nucleus of an atom
    nuclear
  35. ______________ energy is a type of energy that is unfamiliar to most
    electromagnetic
  36. c is speed of light. what is the speed of light?
    3 x 108 m/s
  37. Energy emitted and transferred through space is called _______________
    radiation
  38. Matter that intercepts radiation or absorbs part or all of it is considered ______________________
    exposed or irradiated
  39. _____________ radiation is any type of radiation that is capable of removing an orbital electron from the atom with which it interacts
    ionizing
  40. Ionization is the process of removing an orbital __________ from an atom
    electron
  41. What forms of electromagnetic radiation that can ionize?
    X- rays, gamma rays and ultraviolet light
  42. What are thewo main sources of harmful radiation?
    natural/environmental and man-made sources
  43. Natural environmental radiation consists of:
    • –Cosmic rays
    • –Terrestrial radiation
    • –Internally deposited radionuclides (radioactive nucleus) in the human body
  44. What is emitted from deposits of uranium, thorium, and other radioactive substances naturally occurring in the earth?
    Radon
  45. _______ is the largest component of environmental radiation
    Radon
  46. _____ and ______ x-rays are the largest source of man-made radiation
    Medical and dental
  47. Major natural source of human exposure is ______________________
    Radon
  48. Major man-made source of human exposure is _________________
    x-rays
  49. Who discovered x-rays and when?
    Wilhelm Roentgen was experimenting with a Crookes’ tube in his lab on Nov 8, 1895
  50. Radiographic is ______ or a still image
    static
  51. Fluoroscopy is ______ of a moving image
    dynamic
  52. _________ ________ developed the fluroscope in 1898
    Thomas Edison
  53. _____________________ was recorded as the first x-ray fatality in US 1904
    Clarence Daly
  54. Most injuries were skin damage (____________), loss of hair (__________), and low red-cell blood count
    erythema, alopecia
  55. What does ALARA stand for?
    As Low As Reasonably Achievable
  56. ALARA means
    • –Radiation must have a specific benefit
    • –All exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable
    • –Dose of individuals shall not exceed limits for appropriate circumstances
  57. ____________ – reduce or limit the time spent near the radiation source
    Time
  58. ________________– move away or keep as much distance as possible between yourself and the radiation source (observe SID requirements)
    distance
  59. _____________ – use proper shielding (lead aprons and gloves) when necessary
    shielding
  60. ____________ is the study of interactions of matter and energy in all diverse forms
    physics
  61. Base quantities are:
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    • mass
    • length
    • time
  62. Derived quantities are:
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    ___________________________
    • energy
    • power
    • work
    • momentum
    • force
    • velocity
    • acceleration
  63. Length, 1 meter, is measure by a wavelength of ___________ light emitted from an isotope of ___________
    orange, krypton
  64. Originally defined as the mass of __________ of water at _______ is a _________
    1,000cm squared, 4 degress celcius, kilogram
  65. A unit of time is measure by an _____ ____ based on the vibrations of a _______ _______
    atomic clock, cesium atom
  66. Objects at rest are _____________ and objects in motion are _____________
    static, dynamic
  67. What is the formula for velocity?
  68.        d
    v =  t
  69. What's the formula for average velocity?
  70.        vo + vf
      v =     2
  71. ____________ is the rate of change of velocity with time
    acceleration
  72. What's the formula for acceleration
  73.       vf  - vo
     a =    t
  74. What are Newton 3 laws of motion?
    Law of Inertia, Force, Action/reaction
  75. Law of Inertia
    A body will remain at rest of continue to move with constant velocity in a straight line unless acted on by an external force
  76. Force
    The force (F) acting on an object with acceleration (a) is equal to the mass (m) multiplied by the acceleration
  77. Action/reaction
    For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  78. What is the formula for force?
    F = ma  (mass x acceleration)
  79. Weight is a ________ on a body caused by the downward pull of gravity
    force
  80. Product of the ________ of an object and its velocity
    momentum
  81. The formula for momentum is
    p = mv
  82. _______ is force applied times the distance over which it is applied
    work
  83. What is the formula for work?
    W = Fd (force x distance)
  84. _______ is the rate of doing work
    Power
  85. What is the formula for power?
  86.          Work      Fd
      P =     t     =   t
  87. Law of Conservation of Energy
    Energy may be transformed from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed
  88. Two forms of energy
    potential and kinectic
  89. __________ is defined as the heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water through 1°C
    calorie
  90. Heat is transferred 3 ways:
    • conduction
    • convection
    • thermal radiation
  91. Conduction is best described as
    touching objects together so that heat can be transferred
  92. Convection can be best described as
    transfer of heat through motion
  93. Thermal radiation can be best described as
    transfer of heat by thermal emission of infared light
  94. Temperature is measured by a _____________
    thermometer

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